Transcript Water Quality and Quantity, Climate Change and Public Health
Water Quality & Quantity
Climate Change Training Module
Water Quality and Quantity, Climate Change and Public Health
Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit October 2012 625 Robert Street North PO Box 64975 St. Paul, MN 55164-0975
MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation.
Importance of water in Minnesota Climate changes in Minnesota Public health issues related to: 1. Increases in water 2. Decreases in water 3. Increases in water temperature 3
IMPORTANCE OF WATER IN MINNESOTA
Minnesota: A Land of Water
Surface water: 11,842 lakes greater than 10 acres and 63,000 miles of rivers and streams (NCDC 2006, University of Minnesota Water Resources Center 2011) Groundwater: several aquifers across the state and approx imately 400,000 drinking water wells (DNR, 2010; MDH, 2012) 5 Source: University of Minnesota Water Resources Center 2011
Minnesota: A Land of Water
Has the most freshwater among the 48 lower states (University of Minnesota Water Resources Center, 2011)
At the head of four continental watersheds and is the headwaters and origin of three of the watersheds (DNR, 2000)
Source: DNR, 2000
Water in Minnesota
99% of the water that comes into Minnesota is in the form of precipitation (University of Minnesota Water Resources Center 2011) We control the quality & quantity of water we use and discard 7
Water in Minnesota
Three main air masses affect Minnesota’s weather: 1.
Cold, dry, polar continental from the north Dry, tropical continental westerlies Warm, moist tropical maritime from the Gulf of Mexico
Major air masses converging to MN 2 1 3
The hydrologic cycle describes the continuous movement of water: Evaporation to the atmosphere Precipitation to the land Infiltration to groundwater Discharge to surface water Changes in climate can alter the hydrologic cycle Temperature affects water vapor which affects precipitation http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/watershed_tool/hydr ology.html
19% water use comes from ground water and the remaining comes from surface water
Total water use in MN from 1985 to 2010
Minnesota Drinking Water
78% of Minnesotans rely on public drinking water which is largely from groundwater (~70%) One million Minnesotans (22%) rely on private wells, which all use groundwater 12
Water is Key
Minnesota is rich in water resources High quality, abundant water is essential to Minnesota economy, culture, future Understanding the basic properties of the water cycle and the atmosphere is fundamental to understanding impacts of climate change on water 13
CLIMATE CHANGES IN MINNESOTA
Temperature Dew point Precipitation 14
Weather versus Climate
Weather: conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time Climate: conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30-year standard averaging period) 15
Climate Changes in Minnesota
There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota:
The average temperature is increasing The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing The character of precipitation is changing 16
Temperature has been rising in Minnesota.
Minnesota Average Temperature 12 month period ending December
Source: Western Regional Climate Center 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35
Ending Year of Period
Annual Average Temperature 10-Year Running Average 17
Three significant observations in this overall warming: Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures Minimum or 'overnight low' temperatures have been rising faster than the maximum temperature, or ‘daytime high’ Since the early 1980s, the temperature has risen slightly over 1°F in southern Minnesota to a little over 2°F in much of the northern part of the state 18
Temperature and Ice Cover
Dew Point Changes
Dew point is a measure of water vapor in the air The higher the dew point, the more difficult it is for people's sweat to evaporate, which is how they cool themselves The number of days with high dew point temperatures (≥ 70 °F) may be increasing in Minnesota 20
Dew Point Changes
Source: Dr. Mark Seeley, Climatologist, University of Minnesota 21
On average, the total precipitation in the state has increased since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s.
Minnesota Total Annual Precipitation 12 month period ending in December
Source: Western Regional Climate Center 40 35 30 25 20 15 10
Ending Year of Period
Total Annual Precipitation 10-year Running Average 22
The character of precipitation in Minnesota is changing More localized, heavy precipitation events Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought 23
Public health issues related to:
Increases in water Decreases in water Increases in water temperature
Increases in Water
Highway 169 between St. Peter and LeSueur Precipitation Changes Flooding Humidity & Dew Point
Changes in Snowfall Contributions to Wintertime Precipitation (1949 to 2005)
More wintertime precipitation falls as rain rather than snow This trend may increase risks of runoff and floods Reduced snowpack may lead to lower water levels and drought in late summer (Karl et al. 2009) 26
Greatest increase in very heavy precipitation in the past 50 years occurred in the Northeast and the Midwest (Karl et al. 2009) Total precipitation in the Midwest and Northeast is expected to increase the most with the largest increases in heavy precipitation events (Karl et al. 2009)
Very heavy precipitation is defined as the heaviest 1 percent of all daily events from 1958 to 2007 for each region.
Public Health Issues - Precipitation
Extreme Precipitation Physical injuries and destruction of property
Sewage overflows Increased runoff: sediment, contaminants, nitrate, etc.
Contamination of surface and groundwater
Waterborne disease outbreaks from drinking water or recreational contact (beachgoers): Giardiasis, E coli, Cryptosporidium
Flooding results from a combination of Land use changes that reduce infiltration Undersized sewer/stormwater pipes Extreme precipitation and/or rapid snowmelt Flood magnitude and frequency are likely to increase in most regions, and volumes of low flows are likely to decrease in many regions (Field et al, 2007) 29
2012 Duluth/northeastern Minnesota 500-year flood event Photo credits: Rachel Agurkis (top), Derek Montgomery for MPR (right) 30
Public Health Issues - Flooding
Potential increases of: physical injuries (including drowning) allergies (mold) food and water-borne illnesses food security displacement mental health issues interruption of emergency services (WHO, 2010) Oslo, MN, May 14, 2009 35 days after the Red River flooded 31
Public Health Issues - Flooding
Foodborne illnesses (e.g. Salmonellosis) Increased risk from contamination of certain food crops with feces from nearby livestock or wild animals following heavy rain and flooding (Ebi et al, 2008; CCSP, 2008) Waterborne illnesses Caused by pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium and Giardia) which may increase following downpours Can also be transmitted in drinking water and through recreational use (Ebi et al, 2008; CCSP, 2008) 32
Public Health Issues - Flooding
1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium Outbreak
1.61 M people were affected; over 400,000 w/ significant symptoms; 100 people died Median duration of illness was 9 days (range, 1 to 55) Clinical manifestations included watery diarrhea (93%), abdominal cramps (84%), fever (57%), vomiting (48%) $31.7 million in total medical costs and $64.6 million in total lost productivity 33
Public Health Issues - Flooding
Mental health: anxiety disorders, depression, psychological effects (Ebi et al. 2008) 34
Humidity/Dew Point Increase
Greater frequency of tropical-like atmospheric water vapor (Mark Seeley, 2012) 35
Humidity/Dew Point Increase
July 19, 2011: highest dew point temperature recorded ever in Minnesota 88°F dew point in Moorhead (combined with 93°F air temperature, it felt like 130°F) (State Climatology Office) 36
The Heat Index (HI): calculation that describes how the air temperature and dew point are perceived the human body (Source: NWS, 2011b) 37
Public Health Issues – Humidity & Heat
Human health issues: heat rash, heat exhaustion, heatstroke, death Stressed livestock: reduced milk production, reproduction problems, death Algae blooms Mold Increased vector and microorganism populations 38
Decrease in Water
Drought Lower water levels
Water Levels: Great Lakes
Average Great Lakes levels depends on the balance between precipitation and evaporation (Hayhoe et al. 2010) 41
Public Health Issues – Drought & Lower Water Levels
Reduced soil moisture reserves, groundwater supplies, lake and wetland levels, and stream flows Potential concentration of pollutants Decreasing water supply for drinking water and agriculture Agriculture: adversely affects crop progress and soil moisture and therefore food supply Wildfire dangers (e.g., Pagami Creek Fire, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness – started August 18 th 2011; 92,682 acres as of Oct. 13 th 2011): injuries, property damage, anxiety, psychological effects 42
Increase in Water Temperature
Changes in fish populations & mercury Algal blooms Reduced dissolved oxygen Incomplete mixing Increased vectors Invasive species/ northern expansion of organisms
Fish Populations & Mercury
Warmer waters could harm fish populations and biological activity of cold aquatic ecosystems Warmer waters and rainfall intensity may be contributing to an increase in mercury concentrations in fish Conceptual diagram of climate warming effects on Minnesota fish communities Source: Peter Jacobson, DNR Fisheries Research Supervisor 44
Harmful Algal Blooms & Reduced Dissolved Oxygen
Increased pollution and temperatures can result in blooms of harmful algae and bacteria and reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen 45
Stratification Longer periods of stratification (surface and water bottom don’t mix) may cause dead zones (low oxygen levels) and decrease self purification capabilities of water features May cause fish kills, poor water quality, increased insect populations, etc. 46
Climate change may contribute to the breeding of insects (e.g., mosquitoes) and may increase the risk of vector-borne diseases (e.g., West Nile virus)
Invasive species & northern expansion of organisms
Invasive species Asian carp Zebra mussels Sea lamprey DNR Invasive Species website: Many zebra mussels attached to a native mussel.
Source: MN DNR http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/index.html
Expansion of disease-causing organisms Naegleria fowleri
Public Health Strategies
Green infrastructure Grey infrastructure Emergency Preparedness Individual Strategies 49
Rely on natural processes: Evaporation Trees and plant cover Infiltration Rain gardens Pervious pavers Wetlands
Above: Target Center Roof in Minneapolis Conservation Subdivision
Increase capacity of stormwater pipes, storage tanks and wastewater treatment facilities to accommodate larger rain events 51
Green & Grey Infrastructure
Water Management Solutions
1. Protect natural drainage patterns, watersheds and water bodies 2. Infiltrate and collect water 3. Plant native, drought resistant plants 4. Conserve water (e.g., low irrigation agriculture) 5. Reuse water Source: DNR, 2011d 52
Plan for floods and extreme weather events Minnesota Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (MnWARN): http://www.mnwarn.org/ Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) website on preparing for floods: http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/waste/waste and-cleanup/cleanup-programs-and-topics/cleanup programs/emergency-response/floods-minimizing-pollution-and health-risks.html
Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) website on protecting private wells from floods: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/wells/waterquality/floode d.html
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Flood Insurance Program: http://www.fema.gov/business/nfip/ 53
Drink bottled water during and/or after a flood or outbreak Get your well tested http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/wells/waterquality/index.html
Treat contaminated water http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/wells/waterquality/disinfection.ht
ml Seek information on beaches prior to swimming and avoid visibly contaminated waters Beach info: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/beaches/index.html
Blue-green algae: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/bluegreenalgae.html
Track fish consumption advisories http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/fish/ 54
Water has always been an important and abundant resource in Minnesota Minnesota’s climate is predicted to change in the future and will impact water quality and quantity There are serious public health issues related to: Increases in water Decreases in water Increases in water temperature Strategies to prevent injury and illness include infrastructure adaptation and public health planning and response 55
This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH000738 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Special thanks to the following people for their contributions to the creation of this training module: Anita Anderson, MDH Patti Craddock, Short Elliott Hendrickson Inc. (SEH) Chris Elvrum, MDH Tannie Eshenaur, MDH Ann Pierce, DNR Angela Preimesberger, MPCA Lih-in Rezania, MDH Andrew Sullivan, Eden Prairie 56
Thank you Questions?
Contact the Minnesota Climate and Health Program:
651-201-4893 [email protected]
http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/ October 10, 2012 57
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Slide 4: Photograph by Chaïna Bapikee Slide 7: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 12: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 15: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 19: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 25: KEYC Television Slide 26: Photograph by Sam Choo, available at http://minnesota.publicradio.org/collections/special/columns/updraft/archive/2011/07/another_48_hours_of _relentless.shtml
Slide 29: Photograph by Patsy Lynch/FEMA, August 23, 2007 Stockton Slide 30: Left image from Rachel Agurkis, Right image from Derek Montgomery for MPR Slide 31: Photograph by Ed Edahl/FEMA, May 14, 2009 Oslo Slide 32: Image of salmonella from Wikipedia, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella Slide 33: Photograph credit - Kathy Blair & Jeffrey P. Davis, MD Wisconsin Division of Public Health Slide 34: Photograph by Gettyimages Slide 35: Image by Tildology, available at http://tildology.com/2011/07/19/misery-index-weather-wise/ Slide 36: The Weather Channel 2011 Slide 38: Top image from AFP/Getty Images (provided by Peter Synder, UMN) Slide 39: Left photograph DNR, right photograph by Chaïna Bapikee Slide 42: Photograph by Kate Houston Slide 43: Image from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 45: Photograph of blue-green algae, Source: MPCA Slide 47: Image of mosquito from Wikipedia, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito Slide 48: Image of zebra mussels from MN DNR, available at http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/aquaticanimals/zebramussel/index.html
Slide 50: Top image from Pam Blixt, City of Minneapolis; bottom image from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 51: Image of culvert from Wikipedia, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culvert 62