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Focus on PET
Lisa Parkes
April 2014
SA Packaging in Perspective
The Industry in SA is worth R39 Billion per annum
Est SA produced 1.37 million tonnes of virgin plastic
in 2013
Half used in the packaging sector
Of this amount, the PET market size was 26%
Close on 70% of this was used in the beverage sector,
with the remaining markets being the sheet/tray,
cosmetic, food, household and edible oil sectors.
Packaging is estimated to be some 6 - 10% of the
household waste stream in South Africa.
Growth rate of global packaging market is 4%/yr.
What is PET
• most common container in the
soft drink market today
• polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
• transparent, rigid container used
to package bottled water,
carbonated soft drinks &
numerous other substances
• PET is labelled with the # 1 code
• 100% recyclable.
PET in South Africa
• Current Market size 182 000 tonnes, 9.6 %
increase from 2012: 166 000 tonnes
• 68% used for beverage bottles
• Growth of PET consumption
10% Food & Household
2% Cosmetics
8 % per annum
10% Sheet
10% Oil
68% Beverage
Our Mission. PETCO aims to minimize the
environmental impact of
post-consumer PET on
natural systems by:
• achieving sustainable growth in PET
plastic recycling in South Africa
• supporting existing and encouraging
new collection & recycling initiatives
• promoting a strong focus on public
and consumer education and
awareness programmes
Collection rate in 2013
*of post-consumer bev PET
This is how we get it
PET end use markets
Primary Bottle2Fibre (B2F)
Bottle2Foodgrade packaging ([email protected])
Bottle 2 Food grade/ Bottle
Changing legislative environment
National Environmental Management : Waste Act
-1 Jul ‘09
• Reform the law regulating waste management
National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) -9
Nov ‘11
• 8 goals achieve the objects of the Waste Act
• Some of the tools identified for the
implementation of the NWMS include
A waste classification and management system
Norms and standards
Industry waste management plans
National framework legislation which introduces EPR
Priority wastes and economic instruments.
The Waste Hierarchy
Plastic plays a major role in delivering and
sustaining the quality, comfort and safety of
modern life-styles. But meeting the needs of
society is not just about ‘today’.
Future generations also have the right to
material and other benefits. Meeting the needs
of tomorrow is the foundation of Sustainable
Development and this has to be a critical
consideration in the plastics industry.
• The issue is not about ‘sustainable packaging’,
but about the role of packaging in
• There is, in fact, no such thing as inherently
‘sustainable’ packaging. There can only ever
be a more sustainable way of manufacturing a
certain product.
Why are we here?
• Advocate value chain/ holistic approach
• To work towards minimising recycling costs by
improving packaging design.
• To ensure that societal expectations and
company practices are matched.
• To promote the “Design For Recycling
• PSA SC vision “Zero Plastic Waste to Landfill by 2030”
• To ensure that packaging is compliant with the
law and to demonstrate ‘due diligence’.
• To provide guidelines to designers
• Understand dynamic recycling technologies/
economies of scale
• Have a better understanding of the environmental
implications of design decisions.
• Make their packaging recyclable whenever
possible ( trade offs)
• Prevent their packaging inadvertently interfering
with existing plastic recycling streams
• Cost implication EPR/ cost to consumers
Divergent Expectations
Design for
New Product – PET Bottle example...
• Conceptual Design of the bottle is driven primarily by
the functionality of the bottle:
– Differentiation
• Competitor
• Family Range (Sparkling, Still)
– Branding
• New
• Familiar
• Informative
– Size
• Volume, serving size
New Product – PET bottle example...
• Practical Design of the bottle is driven heavily by the
functionality of the production equipment & product
to be packed:
Product in bottle
New or existing moulds
Compatible with existing filling equipment
Shelf/Fridge Space
Label cost and ease of application
Existing Closure Availability
– Product grade (Food/Non-Food)
New Product – PET Bottle example...
• Final design is a compromise of the
• Design the most functional bottle
that is both economically feasible
and meets the customers
New Product – PET Bottle example...
• What about...
– Recycling Considerations?
– Environmental Factors?
• Karma vid
Packaging Design: Fitness For Purpose
The guiding principle for any packaging design should
be “ fitness for purpose ”.
Thus the goal of improving the recyclability of packaging
cannot compromise product safety, functionality or
general consumer acceptance and should positively
contribute to an overall reduction in the
environmental impact of the total product offering.
Design with recycling in mind
• Satisfy technical, customer and
consumer needs in a way that
minimises environmental
impact by……
– Using the minimum amount of
resources for purpose
– Considering the possibility of
including recycled plastics in their
packaging for both environmental
and commercial reasons
– Reduction in energy consumption
– Facilitating maximum recovery
once it has completed its job
See PETCO Digital Library
Why should I follow guidelines?
• Societial- plastic packaging that you use is designed for recycling and will
be recycled.
• overcome potential legislative issues
• reduce cost
• help conserve resources by avoiding obstacles to recovery
• improving yields
• producing less waste
• ensuring a higher value of the recovered material.
Production of consistently high quality, post-consumer plastic material will
overcome the quality and consistency supply issues experienced in the past.
This, together with its lower cost, will make it commercially a more attractive
raw material and help to further stimulate sustainable secondary markets.
Thus the use of post consumer plastic in packaging whenever possible is
Design For Recycling Principles
Sustainable Design
Implications for Design for Recycling
Triple Bottom Line
Considering the long term
benefits and impacts on:
• The sustainability of plastics recovery at end of
life will depend on:
Health and quality of life,
Commercial feasibility,
Natural environment
- the quality and quantity of the plastic waste
- the availability and capability of recovery
- environmental impacts and benefits of recovery
- the costs of recovery
- access to markets for products from recycled
• The willingness and ability of consumers to
participate in a recovery scheme also needs to
be addressed through system design and
Design For Recycling Principles
Sustainable Design
Implications for Design for Recycling
• Technologies are being developed to recover the
energy content of plastics.
Developing new and
innovative ways to deliver
product value with
significantly less
environmental impact
• New business models are also being developed
around product stewardship, remanufacture and
Design For Recycling Principles
Sustainable Design
Implications for Design for Recycling
Life Cycle Approach
• The importance of design for recycling will
depend on the product application and its
Considering the benefits and
impacts of a product within
the context of its total life
• The environmental and financial costs
associated with short-life products such as
packaging over their life cycle are largely related
to the manufacture of materials. Recoverability
of short- life products is therefore a priority for
Recyclability by Design covers:
Material Selection
Specific gravity of polymers
Material identification codes
Composite materials, barrier layers
Closures, liners
Labels, safety seals and adhesives
Markets for recovered material
Recycled plastics
Bottle-2-Bottle/Foodgrade packaging
materials of different densities
should be used to facilitate the
separation of incompatible
minimise the number of
different plastics used, and to
specify plastics that can be
recycled together or easily
Fillers that change the density
of the plastic should be
avoided and/or their use
minimised as they lower the
quality of the recycled
Use of unpigmented
containers / film is preferred to
The Specific Gravity of
Plastic Polymers
PET is heavier than water
and will sink.
In the PET washing process,
caps or labels manufactured
from polypropylene (PP) or
high density polyethylene
(HDPE) will float and can be
easily removed.
Markets for recovered material
The value of the recovered material is closely related to its
The value of the secondary material is much higher if it can be
separated into individual polymer types and the value of
pigmented plastics is reduced.
visual identification of
plastic types -components
(container, caps, and lids)
should carry a material
symbol should be shown
clearly and ideally moulded
into the container
Material identification
marking should be clearly
distinct from any other
letter or cavity reference
should generally be
embossed on the base of a
Designers should consider
what design features can be
incorporated to aid the
emptying of packs.
Design the pack with a wide
Consider using a pack that can
be stood inverted to ease
Investigate use of non-stick
additives to reduce the cling of
contents to ease emptying.
Where a composite material is
necessary consideration should
be given to the use of thin
layers (e.g. nylon, vapour
Lightweight plastic
laminates (especially those of
thickness <100 microns) are
not cost-effective to recycle.
Materials /
Barrier Layers
Coloured plastic material has a
much lower economic value
than non-pigmented plastic.
Designers are encouraged to
consider alternatives (e.g.
sleeves), if colour is necessary.
Colour of Plastic
Avoid direct printing onto PET.
May interfere with automated
sorting machinery that uses
NIR spectroscopy to identify
the nature of the plastic.
Ideally be recyclable
**Not PET closures on PET
bottles, ideally PP/HDPE
Avoid metal caps – difficult and
costly to remove.
Closures / Closure Liners /
Cap Sleeves / Seals
Labels and Adhesives
Adhesive use and surface
coverage should be minimised
Sleeves and safety seals should
be designed to completely
detach from the container or
else they become contaminants
Water soluble at 60 - 80°C and
hot melt alkali soluble
adhesives are those of choice.
Labels should not delaminate in
the washing process.
Polyethylene and
polypropylene are preferred
label materials
Labels / Safety
Foil safety seals that leave
remnants of foil and / or
adhesive should be avoided.
Paper, PVC, PET shrink wrap
Heavy metal inks not used for
printing as they may
contaminate the recovered
Inks that would dye the wash
solution should be avoided as
this may discolour the
recovered plastic diminishing
its value.
Silica for energy drinks
Metal springs for dispensers
There is a progressive request,
primarily from retailers, for
RFIDs (Radio Frequency
Identification Devices) to be
applied to packaging.
Case Study: Marks and Spencer (UK)
• M&S celebrates its 125th anniversary in 2010 by being named
the recipient of the “Greener Package Retail Leadership
• A 12% reduction in packaging since beginning its
environmental programme
• 72% of all PET used contains food-safe post-consumer waste
(PCW) recycled content
Consumer concience
What should you be doing?
• Understand waste streams/ Waste minimisation during manufacturing
• Advocacy: Increase brand owner awareness/education recyclability/
Provision of recycling/environmental considerations taken and presented to
the customer
• Understand packaging lifecycle and impacts
• Design for recyclability/ with the recycling process in mind
• Grow Knowledge of key recycling/environmental considerations
• Material selection
• Label Material (are there alternatives, if so have costs been shared
with customer)
• Acceptable material combinations
• Understanding of available technologies
• Include rPET in your packaging
• Be aware of the trade offs
• Continue to innovate
• Recyclability by Design
pdf- PACSA Design for Recycling
• -energy drink
which focuses on recyclability
• SAPRO & EPRO Best Recycled product awards
“Sustainable recycling starts
with a recyclable bottle”
Thank you.
[email protected]
021 794 6300