#### Transcript Limiting Reagents

```Chemistry Notes
Limiting Reagents
What are limiting reagents?
Up until now, we have assumed
that all reactants are used up in
a reaction.
In actuality, usually one chemical
runs out first, stopping the
reaction—that chemical is
called the limiting reagent.
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
+
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
+
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
+
=
For Example:
How many sandwiches can you make from
a full jar of peanut butter, a full jar of jelly
+
+
=
The limiting reagent limits or
determines the amount of product
that can be formed in a reaction.
On the flip side, the excess reagent
is the one not completely used up.
How do you find what the
limiting reagent is?
To find the limiting reagent, use
dimensional analysis to determine
how much of the product will be
formed by both reactants.
The smaller of the two results will
indicate which reactant is the
limiting reagent.
Here’s an example:
In the reaction:
Mg + HCl a MgCl2 + H2
If you combine 35.5 grams of magnesium with 28.1 grams of
hydrochloric acid. Which one is the limiting reagent, and
how much magnesium chloride is produced?
Mg + 2 HCl a MgCl2 + H2
35.5 g Mg x 1 mole Mg x 1 mole MgCl2 x 95.3 g MgCl2 = 139 g MgCl2
24.3 g Mg
1 mole Mg
1 mole MgCl2
28.1 g HCl x 1 mole HCl x 1 mole MgCl2 x 95.3 g MgCl2 = 36.6 g MgCl2
36.5 g HCl
2 moles HCl
1 mole MgCl2
HCl is the limiting reagent and
36.6 g of MgCl2 are produced.
K2CrO4 + Pb(NO3)2 a KNO3 + PbCrO4
If 0.947g K2CrO4 are combined with 0.331g
Pb(NO3)2 what will be the limiting reagent, and
how much lead chromate is produced?
K2CrO4 + Pb(NO3)2 a 2 KNO3 + PbCrO4
0.947g K2CrO4 x 1 mole K2CrO4 x 1 mole PbCrO4 x 323.2 g PbCrO4 = 1.97 g PbCrO4
155.1 g K2CrO4 1 mole K2CrO4
1 mole PbCrO4
0.331g Pb(NO3)2 x 1 mole Pb(NO3)2 x 1 mole PbCrO4 x 323.2 g PbCrO4 = 0.323 g PbCrO4
331.2 g Pb(NO3)2 1 mole Pb(NO3)2 1 mole PbCrO4
Pb(NO3)2 is the limiting reagent and
0.323 g PbCrO4 is produced.
C3H8O + O2 a CO2 + H2O
If 3.78 L of O2 are combined with 7.9 g of
C3H8O, what is the limiting reagent, and how
much water is produced?
2 C3H8O + 9 O2 a 6 CO2 + 8 H2O
3.78 L of O2 x 1 mole O2 x 8 moles H2O x 18 g H2O = 2.7 g H2O
22.4 L O2
9 moles O2
1 mole H2O
7.9 g of C3H8O x 1 mole C3H8O x 8 moles H2O x 18 g H2O = 9.48 g H2O
60 g C3H8O 2 moles C3H8O 1 mole H2O
O2 is the limiting reagent and 2.7 g of H2O are produced.
K2CrO4 + AgNO3 a KNO3 + Ag2CrO4
If 1.17g K2CrO4 are combined with 1.23g AgNO3,
what is the limiting reagent and how much Ag2CrO4
is produced?
K2CrO4 + 2 AgNO3 a 2 KNO3 + Ag2CrO4
1.17g K2CrO4 x 1 mole K2CrO4 x 1 mole Ag2CrO4 x 331.8 g Ag2CrO4 = 1.99 g Ag2CrO4
194.2 g K2CrO4
1 mole K2CrO4
1 mole Ag2CrO4
1.23g AgNO3 x 1 mole AgNO3 x 1 mole Ag2CrO4 x 331.8 g Ag2CrO4 = 1.20 g Ag2CrO4
169.9 g AgNO3 2 moles AgNO3
1 mole Ag2CrO4
AgNO3 is the limiting reagent and
1.20 g Ag2CrO4 are produced.
Zn +
HCl
a
ZnCl2 +
H2
What is the limiting reagent and how many
liters of hydrogen are produced if 15.5 grams\
of zinc are combined with 26.3 grams of
hydrochloric acid?
Zn + 2 HCl a ZnCl2 + H2
15.5 g Zn x 1 mole Zn x 1 mole H2 x 22.4 L H2 = 5.31 L H2
65.4 g Zn
1 mole Zn 1 mole H2
26.3 g HCl x 1 mole HCl x 1 mole H2 x 22.4 L H2 = 8.07 L H2
36.5 g HCl 2 moles HCl 1 mole H2
Zn is the limiting reagent and 5.31 Liters of H2 are produced.
Na +
H2 O
a
NaOH
+
H2
If 2.1g of sodium is added to 3.8g of water, what is
the limiting reagent, and how many grams of
sodium hydroxide are produced?
2 Na + 2 H2O a 2 NaOH + H2
2.1 g Na x 1 mole Na x 2 moles NaOH x 40 g NaOH = 3.7 g NaOH
23 g Na
2 moles Na
1 mole NaOH
3.8 g H2O x 1 mole H2O x 2 moles NaOH x 40 g NaOH = 8.4 g NaOH
18 g H2O
2 moles H2O
1 mole NaOH
Na is the limiting reagent and 3.7 g NaOH are produced.
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