Prof M. Anandakrishnan - e
Transcript Prof M. Anandakrishnan - e
CHALLENGES IN e-CONTENT
Prof. M. Anandakrishnan
Chairman, IIT Kanpur
National Workshop on Content Creation
For e-PG Pathshala
New Delhi 18 August 2012
• Includes aspects of both online and elearning; Is largely web-centric;
• Learners may be in or outside
• Uses multimedia devices;
• Enables a high level of interaction
among learners, teachers, peers and
administrators both synchronously and
• Electronically supported learning, and
• computer and network-enabled transfer of
skills and knowledge;
• Web-based learning,
• Content is delivered via the Internet,
intranet/extranet, audio or video tape,
satellite TV, and CD-ROM.
of ICT to enhance distance
• Enables open learning;
• Makes learning activities more flexible;
• Enables those learning activities to be
distributed among many learning
• Affordability is increased
Discourse Oriented Education
Consists of lectures, laboratory
sessions, tutorials followed by
homework assignments, quizzes,
term papers and examinations or
tests. examination on a batchmode of processing. All these
processes are becoming increasingly
inefficient and expensive.
Growth in Conventional Higher
• Mammoth growth in the
higher education institutions;
• Total enrolment 128.23 lakhs of students
in conventional higher education system,
43% are in the faculty of Arts, 19% in
Science and 18% in Commerce,;
remaining 20% enrolment had been in
professional and other courses.
Open and Distance Learning
State Open Univ. : 10.80 Lakhs
Distance Education Institutions:
• Increasing number of aspirants due
to growing realization about the
economic value of education;
• Inadequate resources to fully meet
all aspirations in the conventional
• ODL system can fulfil some of the
EVOLUTION OF DISTANCE
• 75 to 100 years old.
Mostly Theory Intensive.
• Some DEIs have adopted
• Inadequate internet connectivity
and insufficient band widths;
ENROLMENT, SUPPORT AND
RECOGNITION OF ODL
• Enrolment is highest in UG programmes; SOUs, 49.3%; DEIs 45-71%: Certificate/ Diploma
Programmes: Open Universities have higher
enrolments; e.g. IGNOU – 34.99%, YCMOU – 34.84%
and BAOU – 71.95%.
• PG programmes in the ODL: 15-20% in SOUs and
around 30% in DEIs.
• Ph.D students 954: in ODL prior to UGC Ban
• (IGNOU 580-Ph.D. and 38- M.Phil students up to
• Women: about 40%; Rural students about 52%;
• SC enrolled : 13.6% in SOUs and around 20% in DEIs.
• Study centres are mostly poorly
manned with some exceptions
• No credible system of accreditation
• Employer Recognition for fresh
degrees is lukewarm.
• Adoption of e-learning provides
POPULAR MYTHS ABOUT e-LEARNING
e-learning saves money.
e-learning for anyone, anywhere, any time.
e-learning is what net generation wants.
e-learning replaces face-to-face learning.
e-learning can replace teachers.
e-learning is about speed.
e-learning is about flexibility.
e-learning is about multitasking.
e-learning is facilitated, not taught.
• The e-content should be beyond syllabi. Neither
simple digitization of text nor routine video lectures.
• should be holistic in nature and include such aspects
as the socio-economic, emerging trends in the area,
relationship with other disciplines and so on.
• should not be merely to cover the syllabi and not
treated as a means of coaching for examinations.
• the theoretical aspects should be presented with a
animation, illustration and power points.
• Where laboratory and workshop are involved the econtent should be demonstrative as well as
• Adoption of latest course delivery methods such as
the internet, streaming video, video conferencing,
virtual labs, instructional design, interactive content,
CD, video tapes, on-the-job training, etc, to create a
• Should be self-instructional packages with an
integrated multi-media approach, and incorporation
of interactive communication technologies.
• Such a transformation will need rigorous set of
standards for curricular framework, contents,
delivery mechanisms, assessment, accreditation and
SCALE OF TASK
• Hundreds of UG and PG degree programmes and
subjects associated with them. One semester
programme involves 40 lectures per subject. Nearly
4 modules/submodules of e-content; total 160
modules/submodules. Plus illustrative/ participatory
labs/ workshops. All with animations, graphics,
voice, music, power point, etc., Needs subject
expert working with content designer. (eg. ILLL/ DU)
• A six semester discipline involves 30 subjects with
• Massive task with large number subject experts and
technicians with the availability of necessary
• These standards relate to facilities such as :
e-mail 24 turn-around time,
Easy (click) access to instructor e-mail;
Technical Standards for the Website;
Standards for Instructor qualification;
virus protection training; and
technical support to the students.
• Curriculum approval, Evaluation of Course
content and Course Approval should be done
by experts designated
Features of MIT OCW
of Courses – UG and PG; Syllabi;
•Lecture Notes in PDF form Hand Written
and Blackboard Captured
• Video Lectures; course meeting
schedules; Names of Lecturers and
•Assignments and solutions; Exams;
question papers; solutions.
•Text books, study guides, problem sets
•Academic behavior and honesty
FAILURE OF UK e-UNIVERSITY
• UK e–University project started in 2002 under the
holding company, HEFCE and the DfES was wound up
IN 2004 by HEFCE, having spent £50 million of public
money but having succeeded only in attracting 900
students against a target of 5600with implications for
future for e-learning and e-Universities
• Took a supply-driven rather than demand led
• Inability to work in effective partnership with the
private sector, to meet its targets, aims, and
objectives. Failed to attract significant private
Insufficient market research to assess either
the level of demand or the nature of the demand
and the type of e-learning required.
No understanding of consumer demand.
Focused too much on providing an integrated
Over-confident presumption about the scale of
the demand for wholly Internet based e-learning.
- (Report of House of Commons Education and
Skills Committee – 2005)
MASSIVE ONLINE OPEN
• MOOC is less than a year old; likely to be game
changer in Higher Education;
• Beyond ten year old OCW; Crucial Innovation
is Online Grading and Certification;
•Knowledge is Public Good
•IVY League Institutions involved in content
•Can be a substitute and supplement for
conventional university education;
•May destabilize economic basis for higher
• Not to be carried away by Hypes
• Sustain the holistic nature of education and idea
• Avoid fragmentation of knowledge
• Develop e-learning system more for elaboration
of topics, visual illustration of difficult concepts,
supplemental learning etc. Rather than for fresh
• Avail free portals such as MITx, iLABS and SEE
for engineering subjects; Develop similar portals
for science and humanities