#### Transcript Solar and light control

```Introduction to glass functions
2008
Glazing functions – Basis function
 Basic functions
I begin
to
understand
why
man
invented
windows
Glazing functions – Basis function
 Basic functions
– Bring light
– Look up inside / outside
– Protection against wind and rain
Glazing functions
• Other functions
Decoration
Glazing functions
 Basic functions
 Thermal insulation
 Solar and light control
 Acoustic insulation
 Safety and security
 Architecture and decoration
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
High t°
Low t°
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
4
glass = 1 W/(m K)
insulating material  0,065 W/(m K)
: thermal conductivity
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
4
Ug = 5,8 W/(m² K)
19 mm
Ug = 5,4 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
700 mm
Ug = 1.1 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
glass = 1 W/(m K)
air = 0,025 W/(m K)
Ug = 5,8 W/(m² K) Ug = 2,9 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
argon = 0,017 W/(m K)
Ar
Ug = 2,9 W/(m² K)
Ug  2,6 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
Ug = 2,9 W/(m² K)
Ug  2,0 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
Heat
Ug = 2,9 W/(m² K)
Ug = 1,1 à 2,0 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
Summary:
Ar
Ug = 5,8
W/(m² K)
Ug = 2,9 W/(m² K)
Ug from 1,4 to
2,0 W/(m² K)
Ug = 1,1 W/(m² K)
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
Raw glass
Planibel
Double glazing
4/15 air/4
4/15 ar/4
Thermobel
Ug = 2,8
SF
77
Planibel Top N+
Thermobel Top N+
Ug = 1,4
Thermobel Top N+
Ug = 1,1
64
Planibel Top NT
Thermobel Top N+
Ug = 1,5
Thermobel Top N+
Ug = 1,2
66
Thermobel Energy N
Ug = 1,4
Thermobel Energy N
Ug = 1,1
42
Thermobel Energy NT
Ug = 1,4
Thermobel Energy NT
Ug = 1,0
45
Planibel Energy N
Planibel Energy NT
Brussels (Belgium)
Thermoplus Energy
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
Possibilities:
 Thermobel croisillons
 Thermobel luxaclair
Thermal losses of a dwelling...
Roof : 20%
Walls : 25%
Ground : 20%
Windows account for about 35% !
Glazing functions – Thermal insulation
17,3°
18,5
°
20°
12,8°
5,6°
0°
Planibel
Outside
4 mm
Thermobel
Thermobel
Top N+
4-12-4 mm 4-15 ar-4 mm
Ug =5,8 Ug = 2,9 Ug = 1,1
Thermobel
Triple
4-15 ar-4
-15 ar-4
Ug = 0,6
Inside
Glazing functions
 Basic functions
 Thermal insulation
 Solar and light control
 Acoustic insulation
 Safety and security
 Architecture and decoration
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Reminder
Low T°
High
T°
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Intensity
(W/m²)
1.5
Energy
UV
Light
Short Infra-red
1.0
0.5
0
0 280 380
780
2500
Wave length
(nm)
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Solar
V
is
ib
le
Close
IR
waves
Long IR
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
UV, visual, short IR
2. Absorbtion: object heating
3. Things give heat out
(long IR)
4. Glass is opaque
against long IR waves
= Greenhouse effect
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Lights factors
Light
tv = LT = transmitted light
incident light
1
LR
rv
LT
tv
0,10
SG clear
0,90
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Energetic factors
1
SF = g = transmitted heat
incident heat
0,85
DET
ER
0,08
EA
ae
re
qe
te
qi
0,05
0,02
SG clear
}
g
0,87
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Summary: a glazing is caracterised by g and tv
Clear glass
Solar factor g
Light
transmission tv
SG 4 mm
DG 4-15-4 (mm)
0,87
0,90
0,76
0,81
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
How to decrease the solar factor ?
 Modify the glass
composition (mainly changes
the absorption)
 tinted float
Direct
Energy
Transmission
(DET)
Energy
Reflection
(ER)
Energy
Energy
Absorption
(EA)
Energy
 Apply a coating...
(mainly changes the energy
reflection)
 pyrolitic coatings
– Stopsol
– Sunergy
 magnetron coatings
– Stopray
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Solar factor :
0,40 to 0,70
ae
Light transmission:
0,45 to 0,70
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Coloured Planibel
Linea Azzura Green
Bronze
Grey
Azur Dark Blue Priva Blue
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
From Planibel bronze...
…to Planibel
Azur
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
re
Solar factor :
0,10 to 0,60
Light transmission :
0,05 to 0,75
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
1
 From « Spray » process (1)
 Micro-drops screening
2
 To CVD process (Chemical Vapour Deposition) (2)
 Best lateral uniformity
 Higher reactivity
 « Multicoating » possibilities
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Pyrolitic coating: Stopsol
Stopsol
Aspect
couche
RL (#1)
Clear
Green
Bronze
Grey
Classic
Ambre
34%
X
X
X
X
(X)
Supersilver
Argent
35%
X
X
X
X
Silverlight
Bleu
26%
Azur
Priva Blue Dark Blue
X
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Espace Rolin
Brussels
Stopsol Silverlight Green #1
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Pyrolitic coating: Sunergy
Aspect
couche
RL (#2)
Clear
Neutre
9%
X
Green
X
Bronze
Grey
Azur
X
Priva Blue Dark Blue
La Samaritaine
Paris, France
Sunergy clear
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Magnetron coating
Buffer
Buffer
Unloa
d
Washer
Inspection
 Dépôt de couche « offline »
 Procédé « sous-vide »
Coat
zones
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Magnetron coating: Stopray
Stopray 6-12-6
Aspect
Facteurs lumineux
Rli
RD65 LT RL
Facteurs énergétiques
DET* RE* AE* FS* SC*
FS **
U (ar)
W/(m²K)
Neutral
Neutral
Neutral
Neutral
Neutral
97
95
92
96
87
67
61
49
50
40
14
15
19
20
16
15
18
22
22
19
34
29
23
26
17
32
34
34
37
32
34
37
43
37
51
37
32
27
29
20
0.43
0.37
0.31
0.33
0.23
40
35
28
31
21
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
Silver
Silver
95
43
47
42
22
49
29
25
0.29
27
1.2
Lime 61 T
Emeralda
Green
Green
88
90
60
36
10
33
13
42
28
16
9
21
63
63
30
20
0.35
0.23
32
21
1.2
1.2
Bright Sepia
Bronze
90
25
18
41
14
23
63
18
0.21
19
1.2
Titanium 37 T
Granite Grey
Grey
Grey
94
94
36
21
6
14
12
41
22
12
14
21
64
67
25
17
0.28
0.20
27
18
1.2
1.2
Reflex Blue
Blue
88
36
33
42
16
22
62
21
0.24
22
1.2
Indigo 48 T
Blue
80
47
8
12
25
10
63
28
0.32
30
1.2
Elite
Safir
Vision 50
Vision 50 T
Galaxy
Mémorial Roi Baudoin
Brussels
Stopray Elite
Paris Austerlitz
Stopray Neutral – Stopray Carat
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Pyrolithic coatings
Magnetron
coatings
Stopsol
Sunergy
Stopray
Mechanical
resistance
high
high
low
Using in SG
pos. 1 or 2
pos. 2
-
Using in DG
pos. 1 or 2
pos. 2
pos. 2
Edge
stripping
no
no
yes
Transformations
Tempering
Laminating
Enamelling
Curving
Tempering
Laminating
Enamelling
Curving
(Laminating –
contact AGC Flat
Glass Europe)
T  Temperable
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Pyrolithic coatings
Magnetron coatings
Stopsol
Sunergy
Stopray
Light
reflexion
High (pos.1)
low (pos.2)
low
low to high
Thermal
insulation
low
medium
high
Selectivity
low
medium
high
Neutrality
medium
medium
high
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
If the difference of temperature between 2 points of a
glass is higher than 30°C, there is a risk of thermal
breakage
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Glazing functions – Solar and light control
Parameters characterising a glas:
 Ug: thermal insulation
 heating
 g: solar control
 air conditioning
 tv: light transmission
 lighting
 Aesthetic criterias
Glazing functions
 Basic functions
 Thermal insulation
 Solar and light control
 Acoustic insulation
 Safety and security
 Architecture and decoration
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
Examples of acoustic pressure level
Pa
dB
20
120
2
100
0,2
80
0,02
60
0,002
40
0,0002
20
0,00002
0
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
80
60
Urban noise
50
12
5
20
0
31
5
50
0
80
0
12
50
20
00
31
50
50
00
80
60
40
25
Sound level (dB)
70
Frequency (Hz)
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
- 1 dB :
- 3 dB :
- 5 dB :
- 10 dB :
Unhearing
Only just
audible
Audible
Noise divised
by 2
- 20 dB :
Noise reduced
by 3/4
= acoustic range
of glazing
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
How to understand Rw (C, Ctr) = 40 (-2, -5) ?
Rw = 40
“average” of the
spectrum of acoustical
insulation
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
How to understand Rw (C, Ctr) = 40 (-2, -5) ?
Rw (C, Ctr)
Rw + C
= 38
Takes into account
the high frequencies
(acute sounds)
Rw + Ctr
= 35
Takes into account the
low frequencies
(shrill sounds)
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
insulation > 40 dB
>80 dB
<40 dB
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
Possible insulation levels
60
50
40
Rw
[dB]
30
20
10
0
Massive
wall
Double
glazing
Acoustical
glazing
Double
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
How to improve the sound insulation ?
 Special compositions in insulating glazing units :
– Thicker glass
– Asymmetrical structures
– Laminated glass
– Wider cavities
– Acoustical gas
 Double glazing
– DGU
asymmetrical
– DGU
+ PVB
– DGU
+ Acoustic PVB
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
Summary
32 dB
- 2 dB
Renovation !
+ 5 à 9 dB
+ 7 à 20 dB
Acoustic of the dwelling !
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
50
49
45
43
43
40
Rw (dB)
40
39
39
36
37
35
35
32
30
29
29
25
Planibel
Stratobel
Stratophone
Single glazing
Phonibel
Phonibel S
Phonibel ST
Double glazing
Glazing functions – Acoustic insulation
Have no influence on the acoustic prestations of the
glazing:
 Setting sense of the glazing
 Presence of coatings
 Toughened glazing
 Argon using (thermal insulation)
Glazing functions
 Basic functions
 Thermal insulation
 Solar and light control
 Acoustic insulation
 Safety and security
 Architecture and decoration
Glazing functions – Safety and security
What do “safety and security” mean ?
1. Protection against injuries and falls
2. Security against vandalism and burglary
3. Security against weapons
4. Security against explosions
5. Fire resistance
Glazing functions – Safety and security
 Safety glasses ?
– float
Glazing functions – Safety and security
Glazing functions – Safety and security
 Safety glasses ?
– float
– wired
Glazing functions – Safety and security
 Safety glasses ?
– float
– wired
– heat strenghened
Glazing functions – Safety and security
 Safety glasses ?
– float
– wired
– heat strenghened
– toughened
Glazing functions – Safety and security
Glazing functions – Safety and security
 Safety glasses ?
– float
– wired
– heat strenghened
– toughened
– laminated PVB/EVA
Stratobel/Stratophone
Glazing functions – Safety and security
Glazing functions – Safety: Injuries and falls
1. Protection against injuries
With risk of fall
Without risk of fall
Glazing functions – Safety: Injuries and falls
1. Protection against injuries with risk of fall
Stratobel with
minimum 2 PVB
Glazing functions – Safety: Injuries and falls
1. Protection against injuries without risk of fall
Toughened
glass
Stratobel
with minimum
1 PVB
Glazing functions – Security: Burglary
2. Security against vandalism and burglary
number of PVB films
Glazing functions – Security: Burglary
2. Security against vandalism and burglary
Sort of
protecti
on
Level of
protectio
n
Not
Vandalis
organized
m
vandalism
Organized
burglary
Burglary High level
of
protection
Numbe
r of
PVB
films
Examples
2
House ground floor
Shop without high
value objects
4
Lonely house
Shop with big
dimensions objects
6
Shop with high value
or little dimensions
objects
Glazing functions – Safety and Security
Injuries and burglary: Position of the safety
glass ?
Outside
Inside
Glazing functions - Security - Weapons
3. Security against weapons
Glazing functions – Security – Resistance to explosions
4. Security against explosions
Glazing functions – Security – Resistance to explosions
EN 13541 – Resistance to explosions
Glazing functions - Security – Fire resistance
5. Fire resistance
Toughened glass with or without coating
Flamme resistant (class E)
½h
Glazing functions - Security – Fire resistance
5. Fire resistance
Laminated glass with intumescent interlayer
intumescent
interlayer
Rf (class EI)
½ h – 1h – 1h30 – 2h
Glazing functions - Security – Fire resistance
Laminated glass with intumescent interlayer
Glazing functions
 Basic functions
 Thermal insulation
 Solar and light control
 Acoustic insulation
 Safety and security
 Architecture and decoration
Decoration
Thermal
Insulation
Acoustic
Insulation
Solar
Control
Safety &
Security
Aesthetic and
decoration
Glazing functions: Conclusion
Coating for Solar control