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Rock related safety in South African
mines—
are we making progress?
Duncan Adams
19 April 2012
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
1.8
Annual fatality rates for South African mines
Fatality rate/1000 workers
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
All
Gold
Year
Coal
20
12
20
10
20
08
20
06
20
04
20
02
20
00
19
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
90
19
88
19
86
19
84
0
Platinum
Au - 134k Pt - 182k Coal - 76k
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
• MINING INDUSTRY TRIPARTITE SAFETY
TARGETS AND MILESTONES
• OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
• Industry Target: Zero rate of fatalities and injuries
• Milestones:
– In the Gold Sector: By 2013 achieve safety performance
levels equivalent to current international bench marks for
underground metalliferous mines, at the least;
– In the Platinum, Coal and Other Sectors: By 2013 achieve
constant and continuous improvement equivalent to current
international benchmarks, at the least.
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
0.45
SA Gold
2004 level
0,28
0.4
0.35
0.3
Intern. Benchmark
2003 level
0,15
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
2013 benchmark – 0,05
20
13
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
0
20
00
Fatalities/million hours worked
0.5
Projected Future Fatality rates for SA Gold
Mines Compared to International Benchmark
Year
Gold (SA)
International Benchmark (Aus, Canada & US)
Gold Actual
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatalities/million hours worked
0.25
Projected Annual Fatality rates for South
African mines Improving at 20 % per annum
0.2
0.15
Intern. Benchmark
2003 level – 0,08
0.1
0.05
2013 benchmark – 0,03
Coal
Platinum
Year
Intern. Benchmark
Platinum Actual
20
13
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
0
Coal Actual
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatality rates in all South African Mines
0.2
0.1
0.05
Rockfalls
Rockbursts
Machinery
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0
19
96
Fatalities/million hours worked
0.15
Transport
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Rock Related Fatalities 1984 to 2011
250
200
Seismic
150
Gravity
100
50
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
0
1984
No. of Fatalities
300
Year
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Percentage
Percentage of Rock Related and Seismic Related
Fatalities of Total Fatalities Per Year
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Rock Related Fatalities
Seismic Related Fatalities
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Proportion of Rock Related
Fatalities (2011)
28%
3%
Rockfalls
Rockbursts
Other
69%
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatality rate in all South African mines
0.15
0.1
0.05
Rockfalls
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0
19
96
Fatalities /million hours worked
0.2
Rockbursts
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatality rate in the platinum mining sector
0.14
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
Rockfalls
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0
19
96
Fatalities /million hours worked
0.12
Rockbursts
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatality rate in the coal mining sector
0.18
0.16
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
Fall of roof
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0
19
96
Fatalities/million hours worked
0.14
Rockbursts/Strainbursts
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Fatality rate in the gold mining sector
0.2
0.18
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
Rockfalls
20
12
20
11
20
10
20
09
20
08
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
0
19
96
Fatalities /million hours worked
0.16
Rockbursts
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Incidents resulting in 4 or more
fatalities
12
250
Middelbult
53
Vaal Reefs
104
200
Rovic
20
10
150
8
100
6
4
50
2
Number of fatalities
Ermelo 34
& St Helena 62
14
A ll Incid ent s
Year
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
0
1986
0
1984
Number of incidents
16
Kinross
177
R o ckb ur t
Incid ent s
A ll F at alit ies
R o ckb ur st
F at alit ies
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Cumulative Rock Related Fatalities
Cumulative Fatalities(all rock-gold) vs Cumulative Gold Underground
Labour (1984 -2010)
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2003
2010
1998
1984
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
7000000
Cumulative Underground Labour
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Cumulative Fatalities
Cumulative Rockburst Fatals vs Cumulative Tons
Treated(Gold) - 1984 to 2010
1800
1600
1 fatality per 2.62 million tons treated
2003
2008
1400
1200
1 fatality per 1.82 million tons treated
1994
1000
800
600
400
1 fatality per 20.53 million tons treated
1 fatality per 1.16 million tons treated
200
0
1984
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
3000000
Cumulative Kilo Tons
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Cumulative Labour
Cumulative Underground Labour vs Cumulative Tons
Treated(Gold) - 1984 to 2010
7000000
6000000
2083 people per million tons
1999
5000000
4000000
30% improvement
2381 people per million tons
3000000
2000000
1989
2968 people per million tons
1000000
0
1984
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
3000000
Cum ulative Kilo Tons
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Cumulative Rock
Related Fatalities
Cumulative Rock Related Fatalities vs Cumulative Labour(Platinum)
(2000-2010)
250
200
2010
150
2004
2007
100
2000
50
0
0
200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 1600000 1800000
Cumulative Labour
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Cumulative Rock
Related Fatalities
Cumulative Rock Related Fatalities vs Cumulative Tons of PGMs
(2000-2010)
250
200
2010
150
2004
100
50
2000
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Cumulative Tons of PGMs
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Reasons for Improvements in
Rock Related Safety
• Political – change in government
– Leon Commission(1995)
– Mine Health and Safety Act(1996)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tripartism (Unions, DMR and Employers)
Employers – Chamber of Mines
Suppliers – better support
Rock Engineering fraternity
Targets and Milestones (2003)
The Mining Charter(2004 & 2010)
CoM MOSH Learning Hub(2010)
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
CoM Learning Hub
• Identify leading practices in
the industry related to health
and safety and facilitate widespread adoption in the industry
• Three leading practices for
rockfall prevention have been
identified
– Entry examination and making
safe
– Netting with bolting in tabular
stope faces
– Trigger Action Response Plan
(TARP)
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Percentage
129 Rock Related Fatalities
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Possibilities
• Three leading practices in various stages of
use in the industry may have prevented 74
fatalities
– Correct entry exam/barring – 16 fatalities
– TARP – 46 Fatalities
– Netting with bolting – 12 Fatalities
• A worrying 48 rock related fatalities may
have been due to a lack of permanent
support or temporary support
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
In Conclusion
ZERO HARM
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Benchmark for Negligible Risk
• Annual Frequency of a fatality by natural
causes of a young American aged between
10 and 14, which represents the lowest
health risk population group.
• This annual frequency is 10-4 or 1 fatality in
10000 young people or 0.1 per 1000
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
South African Mining Rates
•
•
•
•
Coal
Platinum
Gold
All Mines
0.32 per 1000 workers
0.24 per 1000 workers
0.45 per 1000 workers
0.28 per 1000 workers
• What happens when we get below 0.1?
• Do we continue to insist on trying to achieve zero
and compete with the airline industry?
• Workers may be far safer at work than at home!
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering
Thank you
Duncan Adams Rock Engineering