Transcript Tempus och Tid i
Tempus och Tid
i ‘Nonstandard’ Engelska
Språk och Literaturer/Engelska
SPRÅKWORKSHOP II, 5 november 2010
‘Hur skapas betydelser för tid och tidsförhållanden i olika språk?’
• • • • • • Tempus vs. Aspekt Tempus, tid, tidsformer och tidsrelationer Standard vs. nonstandard engelska Exempel på tempus i nonstandard engelska En närmare titt på AAVE Sammanfattning/slutkommentarer
Tempus, tid, tidsformer & tidsrelationer
A grammatical category vs ’real’ time referred to
example: The train leaves at midnight.
Verb inflection or whole vp ?
example: He walks to work.
He walked to work.
He will walk to work.
example: I want to go when he comes back.
I can do that for you tomorrow.
In 49 BC, Ceasar crosses the Rubicon.
Standard English (from ‘above’) vs.
Non standard English (from ‘below’)
Yo, wassup, yo, yo, yo! What's poppin’, dawg? I'm-a give it to ya straight up like ya don't know what hit ya. You're work is THE shit! I can't live without it, yo. Damn, niggah. Ya got it goin’ for y’all!
"How do you do, Madame. I am extremely delighted to make your acquaintance. It would give me great pleasure if you would accept my invitation for a cup of tea, let's say, around five-ish?"
Standard vs. nonstandard engelska
A B C D E Standard ----|-----------|-----|---------|----------|--- Nonstandard
A continuum of standardness
Wolfram & Schilling
Exempel på tempus & tidsformer i nonstandard engelska A wider range of uses of the Progressive:
I’m lovin’ it.
So what are you wanting from me?
A much more important role of habitual marking:
He be sick.
He be’s at home
He does catch fish pretty
A weakening of the strict division between the Present Perfect and the Simple Past:
Did you eat yet? / Were you ever in London?
I know him since my school days (IrE).
Some of us have been to New York years ago.
Exempel på tempus & tidsformer i nonstandard engelska A weakening of the division between the Past Tense forms and Past Participle forms:
He shoulda did that yesterday.
You coulda took more time.
We seen him do that.
Be as a perfect auxiliary:
They’re not left school yet
Do as a tense and aspect marker:
This man what do own this
. (English Southwest)
Wen ai did smaal tin woz chiyp.
Reduction of have after auxiliaries:
We shoulda left sooner.
They coulda done better.
Exempel på tempus & tidsformer i nonstandard engelska Completive/perfective done:
You don ate what I has sent you?
Past tense marker been:
I been cut the bread.
Was sit/stood with progressive meaning:
When you are stood there, you can see the flames
The general use of gonna as a future marker:
I’m gonna do that later
It’s gonna rain soon.
He gonna do it.
Tempus/Aspekt i AAVE & SE: likheter present past SE
He walks He walked
He is walking
He was walking
perfect past perf.
He has walked He had walked
He walk He walk(ed) He (is) walking He was walking He done walked He had done walked
Tempus/Aspekt i AAVE & SE: skillnader Past Present Future Phases/Tenses of AAVE Phase Example Pre-recent Recent Pre-present Past Inceptive Immediate Post-immediate
I been seen him She done work We did sing I do sing We singing I'm a-sing I'm a-gonna do it
He gonna sing
Några exempel på ‘aspekt’ på AAVE Aspect Example SE Meaning
Habitual/ continuative aspect Intensified continuative (habitual) Intensified continuative (not habitual) He be workin' Tuesdays.
He stay workin'.
He steady workin'.
Perfect progressive He been workin'.
Irrealis (future intention) He finna go to work.
He works frequently or habitually.
He is always working.
He keeps on working.
He has been working.
He is about to go to work.
Några intressanta hjälpverb i AAVE
(BIN) (Remote BIN)
She BIN tell me that.
She BIN eating.
I BIN know him.
He BIN a preacher.
I done pushed it.
You done changed.
I be looking for somewhere to go.
Your phone bill be high, don’t it?
It be knives in here.
I be in my office by 7:30.
Sammanfattning & slutkommentarer
• Förhållanden mellan tempus, tid, tidsformer och tidsrelationer är komplicerade • Nonstandard engelska kan uttrycka tidsrelationer på många sätt • Nonstandard engelska är inte mindre logisk, systematisk eller nyanserad än standard engelska • Tidsformerna på nonstandard engelska kan ge en insikt om eventuella språkförändringar • Fråga: Kan skillnader i SEs och NSEs tidsformer spegla olika tidsuppfattningar?