Parenteral/Enteral Nutrition in Neonates

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Transcript Parenteral/Enteral Nutrition in Neonates

Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
in Neonates
NICU Night Team Curriculum
• Define basic nutritional requirements for neonatal growth
• Describe specific nutritional problems faced by low
birthweight and premature infants
• Know components and advantages of breastmilk;
indications for specific types of formulas
• Determine components of TPN and be able to write fluid
• Formulate an individualized plan for starting and
advancing parenteral/enteral feeds
Goals of Nutrition
• To achieve a postnatal growth at a rate that
approximates the intrauterine growth of a normal fetus at
the same post-conceptional age
• Provide balance in fluid homeostasis and electrolytes
• Avoid imbalance in macro-nutrients
• Provide micro-nutrients and vitamins
A 26 week female is born precipitously to a
healthy 20 year old G1P1 with an
uncomplicated pregnancy.
The baby is transferred to the NICU where a
UAC and UVC are placed. You are getting
ready to order fluids for this baby.
What is your goal growth for this infant?
What is this infant’s caloric requirement?
What fluids do you order?
Gastrointestinal Development
Fetal swallowing, motility in 2nd trimester
– 18 week fetus swallows 18-50ml/kg/day
– Term 300-700ml/day
– Fetal swallowing regulates the volume of amniotic fluid and controls somatic
growth of the GI tract
Intestines double in length from 25-40 weeks
Functionally mature gut by 33-34 weeks
Intestine in final anatomic position by 20 weeks
Premature Infant GI tract:
– Delayed gastric emptying seen in preterm
• Breast milk, glucose polymers, prone positioning facilitate gastric emptying
– Total gut transit time in preterm 1-5 days
– Stooling delayed until after 3 days
–  feeding volume ’s motility
Growth – General Facts
• Last trimester of pregnancy
– Fat and glycogen storing
– Iron reserves
– Calcium and phosphoruos deposits
• Premature babies more fluid (85%-95%), 10% protein,
0.1% fat.
– No glycogen stores
• The growth of VLBW infants lags considerably after birth
Growth Goals
• Weight: 20-30 g/day
• Length: ~1cm/week
• HC: 0.5cm/week
– Correlates with brain growth and later
Caloric Requirements for Growth
• Preterm goal: ~120kcal/kg/day
• Term goal: ~110kcal/kg/day
• Total Fluid of enteral feeds required to
deliver adequate calories for growth is
Total Parenteral Nutrition
Determine fluid requirement (mL/kg/day) for first
day of life
Full-term infants: 60–80 mL/kg/day
Late preterm and preterm infants (30–37 weeks): 80 mL/kg/day
Very-preterm infants: 100–120 mL/kg/day
Determine Glucose Infusion Rate (GIR)
GIR: (% dextrose x IV rate ) ÷ (6 x wt in kg) Calculate GIR from
known dextrose concentration (%).
Example: An infant weighs 2 kg and is receiving 100
ml/kg/day of dextrose 15% solution.
IV rate: 100 × 2 = 200 ml/day ÷ 24 = 8.3 ml/hr
GIR: (15% x 8.3 x 0.1667) ÷ 2 = 10.3mg/kg/min
(15% x 8.3 ) ÷ (6 x 2) = 10.3 mg/kg/min
Total Parenteral Nutrition
Protein and amino acids
Start with 2- 3 g/kg/day
Increase 0.5–1.5 g/kg/day to a total of 3–4 mg/kg/day
Goal for premature infants: 4g/kg/day
Goal for term infants: 3g/kg/day
Source: trophamine
Calculate electrolytes to add to bag
DOL#1: dextrose in water with no eletrolutes is usually appropriate except in
premies with low Ca stores who may require Ca
DOL#2: add electrolytes to the bag based on estimated daily requirements and
Estimated Needs:
• NaCl = 2-4 mEq/kg/day
• KCl = 1-2 mEq/kg/day (NOTE: Do not supplement K until UOP >1cc/kg/hr, especially in
• CaGluconate =200-400mg/kg/day (NOTE: mg not mEq and Ca cannot be infused at
>200mg/kg/day through a central line)
Total Parentral Nutrition
Other added nutrients
• Lipids
• Cystein
• Phosphrous
• Magnesium
• Trace Minerals
• Heparin
Central TPN
Easy to meet nutrition needs
No limits on osmolarity
Little risk of phlebitis
Long term use
May require general anesthesia
Greater risk of infection
Increased cost
Greater risk of mechanical injury,
air embolism, venous obstruction
Peripheral TPN
– Unable to meet needs for
Ca/Phos needs
– Maximum rate of Calcium
gluconate is 200mg/kg/d
– Maximum % dextrose is
– Short term use
– Less risk for catheter related
– Lower cost ?
– Less risk of mechanical injury,
air embolism, venous
Total Parenteral Nutrition
Enteral Nutrition
• Breast milk is best!
• The American Academy of Pediatrics (2005) recommends
breastfeeding for the first year of life.
• Started when an infant is clinically stable
• Absence of food in the GI tract produces mucosal and villous
atrophy and reduction of enzymes necessary for digestion and
substrate absorption
• Trophic hormones normally produced in the mouth, stomach, and
gut in response to enteral feeding are diminished.
• Breastmilk and standard infant formula have 20kcal/30cc
• Specialized formulas and fortifiers allow caloric content to be
Preferred source of enteral nutrition
Very well tolerated by most infants
Improves gastric emptying time
Matures the mucosal barrier
Promotes earlier &  appearance of IgA
Vastly ’s incidence of NEC
More significant induction of lactase activity compared to formula fed
Varies with gestation
Varies according to maternal diet
Varies within a feeding( fat in last ½ fdg)
Varies within the day( fat in PM over AM)
Enteral Nutrition in the NICU
• Term:
– If clinically stable, start PO ad lib feeds and advance as
• Preterm
– Feeds are often initiated with breastmilk, Sim 20 or SSC
– Trophic tube feeds may be continuous or bolus and
advanced gradually (10-20mL/kg/day)
– Transition to bolus from continuous typically begins after
achieving full feeds
– PO feeds typically attempted around 32-34 weeks, when
premies develop suck and swallow coordination
– Premies are often supplemented with TPN as they work
up on feeds
– Goal discharge formula is Neosure 22
What to Feed?
What to Feed?
Practice Problems
Baby boy B weighs 1.2 kg. The IV rate is 6.8 ml/hr, and the IV fluid
contains the following:
• 1.5 mEq of sodium per 100 ml
• 1.9 mEq of potassium per 100 ml
• 3.0 mEq of calcium per 100 ml
• 1.2 mMol of phosphorus per 100 ml.
Calculate the amount of sodium/kg/day, potassium/kg/day,
calcium/kg/day, and phosphorus/kg/day that baby boy B is
2 mEq of sodium/kg/day
2.6 mEq of potassium/kg/day
4.1 mEq of calcium/kg/day
1.6 mMol of phosphorus/kg/day
Practice Problems
Baby boy C weighs 1.5 kg. Total IV fluids are to be
calculated at 140 ml/kg/day. The infant is receiving
central TPN. Lipids are 2 gram/kg/day.
Write TPN orders (including dextrose concentration and IV
rates) to give baby C a glucose infusion rate of 8
Write orders for 4 mEq/kg of sodium, 2 mEq/kg of
potassium, 3.5 mEq of calcium, and 1.5 mMol of
phosphorus to be added to every 100 ml of IV base
Lipids: 0.6 ml/hr
PN fluids: dextrose 8.9% at 8.1 ml/hr
Sodium: 3.1 mEq per 100 ml
Potassium: 1.5 mEq per 100 ml
Calcium: 2.7 mEq per 100 ml
Phosphorus: 1.1 mMol per 100 ml
American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Breastfeeding. (2005). Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of
human milk. Pediatrics, 115(2), 496–506.
Carlson, C, Shirland, S. Neonatal Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Resource Guide. National Association of Neonatal
Nurse Practitioners
Adamkin, D. Nutrition Management of the Very Low-birthweight Infant: I. Total Parenteral Nutrition and Minimal
Enteral Nutrition. NeoReviews 2006;7;e602-e607
Hay, W. Strategies for Feeding the Preterm Infant. Neonatology. 2008 ; 94(4): 245–254.
Thank you NNPs Carol and Terri!