Tanzania (Industrializing Horticultural)

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Transcript Tanzania (Industrializing Horticultural)

Industrializing & Horticultural
By: Kaitlin Brown, Amy Glenn, Lauren Schmidt, Taylor
Morris, Ayeshinaye Holt, Jenna Silver and Sophie Larkin
 The official name is “United
Republic of Tanzania”
 There are roughly 120
ethnic communities in the
country representing
several of Africa’s main
socio-linguistic groups.
 Coastal and island Tanzania
organized into city-states
around 1,500 years ago.
 The official capital of Tanzania is Dodoma
 where Parliament and some government offices are
 The main coastal city of Dar es Salaam served as the
political capital of Tanzania after independence from
Britain until 1996.
 Today, Dar es Salaam is still the principal commercial
city of Tanzania and a temporary home of most
government institutions.
 Located on the coast of the Indian Ocean, it is the major
seaport for the country and its landlocked neighbors.
 Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world,
with much of its economy relying on agriculture.
However, much aid has been given to the country in
hopes of industrialization. Currently, the industrial
sector in Tanzania is small, but growth of this is a huge
goal for the country.
 After Tanzania achieved independence from Britain,
Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of
Tanzania in 1964.
 Tanzania is one of the oldest known inhabited areas in the world,
with fossils of humans and pre-human hominids dating back
over 2 million yrs.
 Tanzania was at one time a hunter-gatherer community until the
Bantus arrived around 2000 yrs ago.
 Today, about 95% of Tanzanians belong to one of 130 Bantu tribes.
 Nilotic pastoralists immigrated into Tanzania throughout the
18th century.
 Tanzanians are one of the first to produce steel, dating back 2000
years ago.
 The Eastern African Hayans are responsible for a type of high-heat
furnace allowing for the forging of steel.
 The region of present-day Tanzania was conquered by Germany
in the late 1800s, but was designated as a British Mandate after
British victory in WWI. This influence from the British resulted
in modern Tanzania’s civil society.
 Tanzania is one of the poorest
countries in the world
 GDP in 2010 was $23.3 billion
 Had a 6.4% annual growth
 GDP per capita was $552
 Agriculture made up 26.6%
of GDP
 Agriculture still provides the most for Tanzanian
economy and is its primary economic sector (accounts
for most of its GDP)
 This sector employs almost 4/5th of the population
 This includes:
 Coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, cloves, sisal, cashew nuts,
maize, livestock, sugar cane, paddy wheat, and
 This is also a downfall because the large dependency
on agriculture renders the economy vulnerable due to
adverse weather conditions. Also because of
unfavorable prices in the international primary
commodity markets
 Industry and manufacturing only made up 22.6% of
the GDP
 -*textiles, agro-processing, light manufacturing,
construction, steel, aluminum, paints, cement, cooking
oil, *beer, *cigarettes, mineral water and soft drinks
 *major ones
 Mining diamonds and gold also contributes to the
 Minerals led to growth from 1991-2000 because of the
industrial production and substantial increase of
minerals, especially gold
 They also mine phosphates, iron ore, gold, nickel, salt,
and a little bit of coal and tin. Oil refining occurs as
 Tanzania is trying to make tourism a bigger money
 The current population of
Tanzania is about 30 million
 The demographics of Tanzania
are diverse, there are
indigenous peoples along with
Pakistani, Indian, Arab, and
European subpopulations
 Population density is the
highest in urban centers, the
foothill regions, and on the
coast of Lake Malawi
 The official language of the Tanzanian populations is
Swahili, which is a coastal Bantu language. The second
official language is British.
 The use of one common language has helped trade,
political debate, nationalism, information
dissemination, and conflict resolution
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCpnu-AivCQ
 Video of two people speaking Swahili in Tanzania
 Men’s life expectancy is about 50 years while women’s
life expectancy is about 53 years
 The mortality rate for children under 5 is 11.8%
 Mortality rate is considered high by world standards
 This rate has declined over the years due to improved
health care and better environmental sanitation
 The average growth rate is 2.9%
 Tanzania has a young population; 44% of the
population are under 15 years old while just 4% is
above 65 years old, this implies that the growth rate
will increase as the young population moves into their
reproductive years
 Fertility rate in Tanzania is about 5.7 children per
woman, as of 2004. The rates are different depending
on the woman’s education and whether or not she lives
in an urban or rural area.
 Fertility for women I rural areas is recorded at 6.5 births per
woman while fertility for women in urban areas is 3.5 births
per woman.
Fertility rate for women with no education is 6.9, with
primary education 5.6, and with secondary and higher
education 3.2
Fertility rates are high because marriage for women is
essentially universal and many women marry young
Children are also highly valued as a source of domestic and
agricultural labor and also as economic security for parents
once they become elderly
Women have a low social and educational status so they don’t
have as much right to their bodies.
 Rural-urban migration has steadily increased
 Urban areas are continually getting denser and denser as
people migrate out of rural areas.
 This sudden surge in migration has caused stress on
public services and social infrastructure.
 Rapid population growth tends to slow growth in
national output
 Population growth affects public budgets for health,
education, and human resource development sectors
the most, and in negative ways.
 The maternal mortality rate has been and continues to be a
problem in Tanzania and is increasing.
 The population is heavily
influenced by Christian and
Muslim ideologies.
 In Mainland Tanzania:
 40% of the population is
 35% of the population is
 20% of the population follows
indigenous religions
 In Zanzibar (Archipelago of
 Nearly 100% of the population
is Muslim
 Religious freedom has been one of the country’s biggest
 All religious holidays receive equal public recognition
 Only a very small portion of the population (5% or
less) is secular/non-religious
 There is a strong feeling of national pride and cohesion in
 Swahili is spoken by the majority of the population and this
has been a major factor in developing the country’s
national identity
 Nyerere, the nation’s first president, encouraged all
Tanzanians to adopt Swahili as their national language in
order to feel as if they are one people
 No one ethnic group dominates the political or economic
 There has been no war in the country for 20 years
 Conflicts are resolved without violence – keeping the national
identity intact
 Nyerere developed the idea of “ujamaa” –
“family/familyhood,” a system of mutual assistance for
the Tanzanian economy
 While Tanzanian Socialism failed, the effect the idea
of “ujamaa” had on the population remained
 Sub-national Identities
 There are about 120 ethnic groups within Tanzania
 Largest groups are:
 Sukuma (over 3 million people)
 Chagga, Haya, Nyamwezi (over 1 million people each)
 However, because of their use of Swahili, they are still
united as one people – even though they have their
own tribal cultures and traditions
 United Republic of Tanzania is a Unitary Republic that
consists of two nations that were once separate:
Tanganyika and Zanzibar
 They were merged in 1964, after a revolution
 There is a direct popular election of a president and
National Assembly every 5 years
 The President appoints a Prime Minister to preside over
the National Assembly
 There is one dominant party
 The Chama Cha Mapinduzi
 Other parties do exist but they are minor
 Although there is opposition to the Chama Cha
Mapinduzi, the nation does not have internal
conflict between parties.
 Tanzania’s top social class is the traditional elite
 Includes descendants of kings and paramount chiefs
 Lost their traditional titles after independence
 Modern elite
 Individuals in the government
 Successful businesspeople
 Highly educated individuals
 The poor
 HIV-ADIS epidemic ad decrease in social services has
made it so that the poor can no longer care for all of
their children and relatives
 Beggars and street children
 Becoming more and more prominent
 Victims of police brutality
 Markers of upper classes
 Owning one of more cars
 Expensive hairstyles
 Western clothing
 Large, Western houses with modern amenities
 Command of English and/or other non-native languages
 Frequent travel
 Markers of the poorest classes
 Severe malnourishment
 Rags as clothes
 Constantly living on the edge
 Market Economy
 The market economy has encouraged individual success
 It has encouraged proliferation of Western goods
 It has increased systemic corruption
 It has caused the gap between rich and poor to widen
even more
 The Tanzanian educational system is comprised of four levels.
 Pre-Primary
 Lasts for two years (ages 4-6)
 Run mostly by individuals and private institutions with a small
amount of state involvement.
 Pre-Primary institutions are mostly found in urban areas.
 Primary/Basic
 Last for seven years (ages 7-14)
 The conditions of Primary schools vary. Some have received more
funding than others either through charities or through issues
within the government.
 Run by the state, charitable institutions, as well as private
 Most Tanzanians end their educational career once they’ve
completed Primary school.
 Secondary
 Split into ordinary and advanced secondary education.
 It takes four years to graduate from ordinary secondary education.
 It takes two years to graduate from advanced secondary education.
 Run by the state, charitable institutions, as well as private individuals.
 Tertiary
 Tanzanian equivalent of college here.
 There are only 4 state run universities and eight private
universities in Tanzania.
 It takes three years to graduate.
 Around 19,000 people are enrolled in tertiary education in
 There have been vast improvements within the
education system but it still has large flaws.
 Bilingual policy is the educational policy the
government is most proud of.
 Students are required to learn Kiswahili and English.
 Primary school fees were banished in 2005 and as a
result the enrollment numbers of primary schools
have doubled.
 According to the government 97.3% of the primary-school-
aged population is enrolled.
 Students still have to buy for their uniforms and pay a fee to
cover the cost of food and security, so some families are not
able to afford to send their children to school.
 The educational system made
great strides during the time
period right before the
recession as a result of foreign
aid and donations, but as a
result of the recession there is
currently lack of funding.
Because there are more children enrolled in
school, but more teachers have not been hired,
classes have become very crowded.
In 2009 there were 63 students for every
teacher, whereas in 1999 there were 40 students
for every teacher.
 It is very common for students to have to walk close to
10km to get to school.
 While walking many girls are attacked by rapists.
Tanzanian law states that pregnant girls must be
thrown out of school and are not allowed to
return. This government is currently under
scrutiny by the government.
In an effort to protect girls the government and
charitable organizations have opened all girls
boarding schools.
 The majority of ethnic groups are patrilineal,
recognizing descent through male ancestors, there are
some matrilineal groups (where descent is traced
through females) in Tanzania
 the Kaguru in the east-central part of the country, for
 Traditional marriage customs vary by ethnic group. The
practice of clan exogamy—or marriage outside of the clan
or group—is typical, however, of almost all ethnic groups.
 Traditional customs call for marriages to be arranged by
the parents of the bride and groom, although such
arrangements are becoming less common in modern times,
particularly in urban settings.
 For those wealthy enough to afford it, marriage may include a
separate dowry ceremony and, several months later, a church
wedding followed by traditional ceremonies.
 Although many ethnic groups and Muslims allow polygyny,
the practice is decreasing in popularity, in part because of
the influence of Christianity and the expense of
maintaining several households.
 Kinship is one of the strongest forces in traditional
Tanzania, especially among the Bantus. Kinship
systems provide networks for support and become
visible during all major life-cycle ceremonies. Kinship
is based on descent and marriage.
 Marriage is only complete once the first child is born,
which also is when the woman is considered fully
 In most ethnic groups, she is recognized by her eldest
child's name and called
 Example: "Mama Kyaruzi," after her eldest child of the
same name.
 Bride wealth is also an important part of marriage and
serves as an insurance of good behavior from the
husband and wife, compensation to wife’s family for
loss of her labor, payment for the cost of her
upbringing, establishing legal ownership of husband
over their children, and a seal to the marriage contract.
 A large number of children is beneficial because it
increases the immortality of the family.
 Tanzania has existing voids between genders that have
been hindering the society
 The government is working towards fixing the gender
imbalances and creating a better bond between men
and women
 As of now, “it is estimated that women especially rural
women provide 80 percent of labour force in rural area
and producing 60 percent of food
production. Though, they are the main producers of
cash crops, the environment does not allow them to
own their own wealth.” –Tanzania National Website
 Another woman problem
in Tanzania is that
women are not allowed
to decide how many
children they are going
to give birth to…even
though they should be in
control of their bodies
 The legal system in Tanzania does not fully protect
women. One reason being that it does not reach out to
rural women because of literacy issues.
 “There is also discriminatory application of statutory
laws, inadequate legislative protective mechanism
such as protection orders, baring orders and safety
orders in the legal system and insensitive
investigations and prosecution of cases involving
violence against women and children.”
 http://www.tanzania.go.tz/gender.html
 Some of the old customs are considered controversial
to Western countries.
 Examples:
 Institutionalized violence against women
 Property inheritance
 Genital mutilation
 Several statutory, religious and customary laws
 The legal position in Tanzania is that payment of bride
price is not necessary for the validity of a marriage
 The Law of Marriage Act
 "A marriage which in all other respects complies with the
express requirements of this Act shall be valid for all purpose,
notwithstanding (a) any non-compliance with any custom
relating to dowry or the giving or exchanging of gifts before or
after marriage.”
 However, bride-price is still a common custom
 The Emory Law:
 Polygamy is allowed with consent of the first wife
 Maintenance of wife/wives is the husband’s duty
1. Tanzania’s economy relies on:
A. fishing
B. agriculture
C. manufacturing
D. Information
2. What are the official languages of
A. English and French
B. Swahili and German
C. German, French, and British
D. Swahili and British
3. There is much conflict in Tanzania.
A. True
B. False
Answer: FALSE
4. How many levels of education does
Tanzania have?
A. Two
B. Three
C. Four
D. Five
Answer: FOUR
5. With regards to women, which custom is
NOT practiced in Tanzania?
A. Sterilization
B. Statutory religious and customary laws
C. Genital mutilation
D. Institutionalized violence
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFfxfUXmSG4
 Tanzanian Swahili Rap!