Chapter 1: Tools for an Information Age. Part B.

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Transcript Chapter 1: Tools for an Information Age. Part B.

Slide 1

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 2

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 3

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 4

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 5

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 6

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 7

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 8

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 9

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 10

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 11

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 12

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 13

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 14

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 15

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 16

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 17

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 18

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 19

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 20

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 21

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 22

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 23

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 24

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 25

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 26

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 27

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 28

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 29

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 30

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 31

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 32

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 33

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 34

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 35

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 36

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 37

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 38

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 39

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 40

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 41

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 42

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 43

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 44

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 45

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 46

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 47

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 48

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 49

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 50

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return


Slide 51

Welcome to CMPE003
Personal Computer
Concepts: Hardware and
Software
Winter 2003
UC Santa Cruz
Instructor: Guy Cox

Computers:
Tools for an Information Age

Chapter 1 – Part b
Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Forging a Computer-Based Society


Traditional Cornerstones of
Economy:






Land
Labor
Capital

New Economic Element:


Information

Computers are all around!







Grocery store
School
Library
Bank
Mail

We interact with computers everyday!

Fundamental Characteristics






Speed
Reliability
Storage Capability
By-products (or Benefits)

Benefits of Computers


Productivity





Decision Making




Workers use computers to do their jobs faster and better
Many processes can be more efficiently controlled by
computers
Helps decision makers sort out financial, geographical, and
logistical factors

Cost Reduction


Helps hold down costs of labor, energy and paperwork

Chapter Objectives


Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers





Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are
used
Identify the basic components of a computer system:








Speed, reliability & storage

input, processing, output, and storage (IPOS)

List some common input, output, and storage media
Distinguish raw data from information
Describe the significance of computer networks
Explain the significance of the Internet
Explain the various classifications of computers

Computer System

People

Software
Hardware

People


Hardware Engineers –




Software Engineers (programmers) –




People who design and build computers

People who design and write software
programs

Users or End-users –


People who make use of the computer’s
capabilities

Software


Programs



Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

Hardware –
Basic Components of a Computer

What Is a Computer?


A machine that can be programmed to accept
data, process it into useful information, and
store it away



Data: raw facts representing people and events
Information: data that is organized, meaningful,
and useful

Functions in a Computer System
What is a computer?


Four primary
components:





Input devices
Processor
Output devices
Storage

Input: What Goes In




Input: the data or commands put into the
computer for processing
Common input devices:






Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Microphone
Camera

Keyboard


Most common input device


Generates electrical signals
which are translated into
characters

Mouse


Moves over a flat surface


Movement of mouse ball causes corresponding
movement of pointer on screen

Scanner


Reads special letters,
numbers, and symbols




Wand reader, bar code
reader often used in
stores
Flatbed and sheet-fed
scanners scan pictures
or printed documents

The Processor and Memory:
Data Manipulation


Processor




Also called central processing unit (CPU)

Memory (primary storage)



Closely related to, but distinct from processor
Provides temporary storage

Primary Storage


Used to temporarily hold data






After it is retrieved from input device and before it
is processed
After it is processed and before it is released to
output device

Temporary (volatile) storage


Data in memory lost if power is lost or program
closed

The Processor


Center of activity in the computer


Consists of electronic circuits





Interprets and executes program instructions
Communicates with input, output, and storage devices

Transforms data into information

Output: What Comes Out





Output: the result produced by the CPU
Common forms of output: text, numbers,
graphics, and sounds
Common output devices:




Screen (monitor): can display text, numbers,
photographs, even video, in full color
Printer: produces printed reports as instructed by
a program

Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen







Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video

Printer



Black and white
Color

Speakers


Music

CDs, DVDs

Secondary Storage


Provides long-term storage




Separate from memory

Common media




Magnetic disks
Optical disks
Magnetic tape

Caveat -- “Bit rot”


Data can be lost or
changed over time

Magnetic Disks


The most common storage media



Diskette: 3.5” flexible diskette in plastic case
Hard Disk: more storage capacity and faster access
than diskette

Optical Disks


Use a laser beam to read large volumes of data
inexpensively



CD-ROMs
DVD-ROMs

Magnetic Tape



Stores large amounts of data inexpensively
Often used for system backup

Peripheral Devices


All hardware devices attached to the
computer


Includes all input, output, and storage devices

Networking




Network: a system that uses communications
equipment to connect computers and their
resources
Common network tools:





Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Modem
Electronic mail

Local Area Network (LAN)


Personal computers in an office are
connected so users can communicate



Users can operate computers independently
Can share resources and exchange data

Wide Area Network (WAN)



Wide area network (WAN) – connects computers
over great distances


A WAN may connect several LANs

The Internet


The largest and most far-flung network







Connects users worldwide
Not actually a network, but a collection of
thousands of networks

No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available

Internet

Connects
Everyone!

Individuals
Businesses
Organizations

Libraries
Research labs
Government

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


Send and receive messages electronically





Can send text, pictures, links to Web sites
Can attach files for collaboration

Messages stored in computer “mailbox”

Getting Connected


To access the Internet, connect to a server
computer





Server receives, processes, and transmits
information

Computers use a standard to communicate
Need an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Home Connectivity


Connect home PC to other computers




(Usually via an ISP)

Use modem to convert signals between
electronic (computer) and analog (voice)
formats




Dial-up modem
ADSL modem
Cable modem

Modem


A device that allows users to communicate
with other computers over telephone lines


Required when you don’t have a digital
connection such as DSL or a cable modem

Internet Service Providers


The owner of a server computer


Charges a fee for access to the Internet




Fee can provide unlimited access or be based on
usage

Provides the user a means to connect to the
server


Once connected, you can connect to the Internet
and all other server computers

Computer Protocols


Provides a standard way to communicate
with other computers




Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) used on the Internet
Allows different types of computers to share data

Getting Around the Internet


Began as a means for Department of
Defense and its research institutions to share
information





Information was text-only
Commands to navigate were obscure

Now, much more visually based



Use browser to explore the Internet
World Wide Web

Browser


Software that allows you to use a mouse to
explore the Internet




Click on screen text and/or graphics to move to
different locations
Most commonly used to explore the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web


A subset of the
Internet




Actually, a standard for
displaying and
transmitting information

Web site: a location on
the Web


Home page: the main
page of a Web site

Classification of Computers








Personal Computers
Notebook Computers
Handheld Computers
Midrange Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers

Classifications of Computers



Use the computer that fits your needs
Based upon









Size
Speed
Cost
Portability
Number of simultaneous users supported
Available software
Typical use

Personal Computers


Desktop computers




Broken down into three categories:






Also known as PCs, microcomputers, or home computers
Low-end computers
Fully-powered personal computers
Workstations

Network computer



Central processing unit and minimal memory
Designed to be used on a network


Sometimes called thin client

PC Categories


Low-end computers




Fully powered computers




Fine for home users, word processing, simple games,
Internet access
Good for heavy use of graphics, programming, or actionoriented games

Workstations


Very high-end computers used by engineers, financial
traders, and graphic designers

Notebook Computers



Small, lightweight computers
Capabilities approach that of
desktop computers





Similar processing and memory
Most have hard disk, and diskette
or CD-ROM drive

Typically more expensive than
comparable desktop computers

Handheld Computers


Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)






Keeps track of appointments,
contacts, etc.
Accepts input with hand-held stylus

Pocket PC


Offers capabilities of PDAs, plus the
ability to run stripped-down versions
of software such as word processing
and spreadsheets

Other Types of Computers


Client/Servers





client processes requesting service from server processes
clients and servers running on the appropriate hardware and
software

Mainframes





High speed
More expensive
Used to process large amounts of data quickly







Transaction processing

Support multiple users
Does server tasks

Supercomputers



Fastest speed
Most expensive

Midrange Computers


Multi-user computers designed to serve the
needs of medium-sized organizations



Hundreds or thousands of users connected
Used for inventory, order-entry, and other
company-wide applications

Return

Mainframes


Very large and powerful computers






Capable of processing billions of instructions per
second
Capable of handling billions of characters of data

Often used for applications with many users




Reservations systems
Large mail-order houses
E-mail servers

Return

Supercomputers


The fastest and most powerful
computers




Capable of processing trillions
of instructions per second

Used for very sophisticated
applications requiring mammoth
data manipulation:




Weather forecasting
Weapons research
Special effects for movies

Return