Analogy Strategy - READ4251

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Transcript Analogy Strategy - READ4251




Books Published: Keys to Literacy Instruction in the Elementary Grades, Coffey & Roberts, Kendall Hunt Publishing Keys to literacy instruction for the Net generation: Grades 4-12, Roberts & Coffey, Kendall Hunt Publishing

Components of a Balanced Literacy Diet           

Motivation for literacy Concepts of print Word/World knowledge Language development Listening/thinking skills Sight words Phonemic awareness and letter-sound connections Letter formation Spelling Schema development Authentic READING

Fluency (read in conversational tone)

Text structures

Comprehension strategies And REAL WRITING experiences



Word recognition is the foundation of Reading


Comprehension is the goal of Reading

Phonemic Awareness: Phoneme Segmentation Assessment


“What are the sounds (phonemes) in… (target word)? Show the number of sounds in the target words by moving the appropriate number of disks.  For example: “What are the sounds in the word run?”  Answer: r — u — n  Your turn-go, grab, drum

Robert’s Spelling Error Guide

Ehri Word Recognition Stage Pre-alphabetic (visual cues) Bear et al.

Spelling Stage Example Early Letter Name bed = b Partial Alphabetic (phonetic cues) Full alphabetic spellings) Letter Name bed = bad drive = grive Within Word Pattern ship = (distinct sip, ship

Roberts’ Spelling Error Guide, cont. (Adapted from Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 1996; Ehri, 1992)

Ehri Word

(chunks of letters)

Bear et al.

Recognition Stage Spelling Stage Example

Consolidated Syllable Juncture popping =popping plesure = plesour, pleasure










Common Phonics Patterns in English Syllables

Syllables that end in a consonant: CVC (sat, napkin); the vowel is usually short.

Syllable that ends with a vowel: CV (me, spider), V (a, halo, baby); the vowel is often long.

Final e: CVCe (take, home, cupcake); the vowel is often long while the final e is silent.

Vowel digraph (ai, ee, ea, oa, etc.) as in team, green, lean, peanut; the 1 st vowel is often long and the 2 nd one is silent, but this does not apply to many vowel teams.

Consonant digraph (sh, ph) as in shut, paragraph R controlled vowel (ar, ur, ir, or, er) as in far, fur, for; the vowel is neither long or short. Plus-ir, ar, ur often sound like er in one syllable words as in the word car, fur.

6. Consonant plus le, as in little, purple, treble = pur/ple Diphthongs (oi, oy) as in boil, toy; the vowels make a unique sound Schwa=vowel makes “uh” sound=awake 8.


Blend= Two or three conson+-ants come together and blend their sounds (brick, flip) Soft and hard c and g-activity on website

1. Ways to Segment Words 2. How to Add ing as a suffix

(from Graves, Juel,Graves, deWitz, 2011, p.190)

Segment Words by…

Morphemes Syllables Onsets & rimes (spelling patterns) Phonemes


planet Plan et Pl an et P l a n et


Cats cats k ats K a t s

How to add ing to words

VC words =get VCC words=ask

Double the consonant then add ing


Just add ing


Dividing Words Into Syllables: Hand and Chin strategy

 Between 2 medial consonants: ig/nore, hap/py  After medial consonant between 2 vowels: ov/en  Words ending in le=consonant + le: re/li/a/ble, bab/ble  Prefixes and suffixes: un/done, trans/for/ma/tion, hap/pi/ness  Applications with digraphs: both/er Discuss then check

Frequently Used Prefixes


un re in, im, ir, il (not) dis en, em non in, im (in or into) Over (too much) mis sub pre


inter fore de trans super semi anti mid Under (too little)

The Analogy Strategy

Examples of chunking unfamiliar words using the analogy strategy: Spelling patterns are underlined. Vowels are often long and short-ask students to check the vowel Vowels=A,E, I, O, U and sometimes y and w!

C at Re/spon/si/ble






Steps of the analogy strategy:

Teach 1-5 key words each week and study onset-rime (rime is also called spelling patterns) of key words Create word families from the key words Use the key words in language experience stories Use the key words in a variety of activities during the week (word analysis, related games and connect to reading and writing for comprehension) Place the key word on a Word Wall as a reference for decoding unfamiliar words with the same spelling patterns

Word Analysis and Word Detectives…Ask Students:

How Many Sounds Do You Hear in the word? How Many Letters are in the Word? Why? Check the vowels

C A R k au r 3 V I N E* S E E N v i n 3 s e n 2 C A N T E N T R O U N D k a n 3 t e n t 4 r ou n d 4

Ask: Tell me about the vowel…what is your rule? What is the phonics generalization/rule? Does it break the rule?

Talk to Yourself Chart (Gaskins et al)

1. The keyword is ______________ .(vine) 2. Stretch the word.

I hear __________________ sounds. (3) 3. I see ________ letters because ______. (4, the e is silent) 4. The spelling pattern is ____________. (ine) 5. This is what I know about the vowel: _______________ . (the i is long because of e at the end of the word-CVCe) 6. Another word on the word wall with the same vowel sound is ________.(ride)

Partner-sharing Chart

Person 1:

(Select a single syllable key word for this activity-it can come from a one syllable or multi-syllable word) 1. My word is _________________ .

2. My word wall word is _______________ .

3. The words are alike because ____________ .

4. Do you agree?

Person 2:

Give one of these answers: Yes/No, because _____________.

Switch roles.

Day 1: Using the Analogy Strategy for Word Recognition

   Introduce 1-5 key words to be used during the week (Ex. Cat, grab, her, red, take) and learn the spelling patterns: at, ab, er, ed, ake.

Use the 1-5 key words in word families with the same spelling patterns and check the vowels . Practice saying “If I know________ then I know ________” cat , hat, sat grab , cab, drab her , better red , sled, bed take , cake, rake Use the 1-5 key words and some of the words in their word families in a Language Experience Story that is fun to write .

Day 2 of the Analogy Strategy:  Analyze the key words 

t a k e

   

t a k (Tell me about the vowel-is it long, short, or

makes a unique sound. Why?)

Review the 1-5 key words spelling pattern). to be learned during the week (i.e., cat, grab, her, red, take-note there is only one key word for each Discover words with the same spelling patterns during reading across the content areas-Have students create goal charts to motivate them to use the words during reading, spelling, writing, and during discussions.

◦ ◦ ◦ Use the key words in sentences and challenge sentences (model), for example:

Please take the cake out of the oven.

We went skating after the party. (Note the at in “skate” makes a different sound than at in “cat”-students share their discovery about the difference)

Please __________ the c at outside


Elkonin Boxes…Use with word analysis

v i n e b oa t


Student Name___________ Please return the autograph sheet on ____________ Each autograph below the title certifies that the student has read the Word Detectives Story with/to an adult one time. There should be one autograph under the story title for each reading. Autograph Goal and example ___________________________________________________ Please write _____discoveries per night in your Language Log.

Book Title:_______________________ Book Title _______________________________

Parent Questions

What do I say when my child says, “What is this word?”

Consider the word: First ask, “what have you tried?” If the word is a simple one-syllable word, you could say…”Look at every letter in the word.” “Stretch the word.” (e.g. best, tip, stick)

If the words seems to have a common spelling pattern like –et or –and, say… “Look at every single letter in the word.” “Find the vowel.” “What is the spelling pattern?” (vowel and all letters after it in the syllable-r-ide…ide is the spelling pattern).

“Do you know a word with the same spelling pattern?” “If I know _______, then I know ___.” (e.g. brand, pet, grill)

If the word seems irregular and the sentence may help, say… “Let’s read the sentence to see if you get any clues.” (e.g. onion, karate)

Apply in a Game

Play What’s in My Head?

My word is on the board.

My word begins like “table”.

My word rhymes with “lake”.

Please __________ the cat outside.

Aa *cat Ee

Vowel Word Wall

Ii Oo bed ride steal boat *on Uu Yy up yes

*Examples of multi-syllabic words and their single syllable key words: at/tach/ed =cat, re/ spon/ si/ble =on.

Spelling patterns are also called rimes (the vowel and letters after it in a syllable). The spelling patterns are underlined. Struggling readers need to focus on phonics, spelling and vocabulary and connect to comprehension during reading and writing

Great resource: Gaskins et al article about word recognition and the analogy strategy: Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words, The Reading Teacher Journal.

The analogy strategy for phonics, spelling, writing, and comprehension

 http://www.readinga

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