Transcript Document

University of Ulster
Preparing the Body for Sport
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Science and Sport
• Physiology
– Body
• Psychology
– Mind
• Biomechanics
– Internal and External Forces
– Ronaldo scoring in the dark
– Biomechanics Video Analysis
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Physiologists
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Fitness Testing
Nutrition
Research
Supplements
Injury Prevention
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Preparing for Sport
“ …aside from the limits imposed by heredity and the
physical improvements associated with training, no
factor plays a bigger role in exercise performance
than does nutrition”
(Costill 1988)
“Diet significantly influences athletic performance. An
adequate diet in terms of quantity and quality, before,
during and after training and competition will
maximise performance.”
International Consensus Conference, Lausanne, 1991
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Preparing for Sport
• Most foods can be broken down into 3 groups
– Carbohydrate
• Complex
• Simple
– Protein
• Constructed from amino acids
– Fats
• Saturated
• Unsaturated
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Task One
• In groups identify 4-5 food examples for each
of the 3 major food groups.
– Carbohydrates
– Protein
– Fats
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Possible answers
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Brown rice
Chicken
Fast foods
Pasta
Fish
Chocolate/sweets
Wholegrain breads
Eggs
Fried foods
Potatoes
Lean meat
Sugary drinks
beans, peas and lentils
Yogurt/milk
Buns/cakes
Fruits and veg.
Beans (mature soy beans)
Nuts and Seeds (Pumpkin,
Squash, and Watermelon
Seeds, Peanuts, Almonds)
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Preparing for Sport
• Optimum diet for normal population
• Carbohydrate:
• Protein:
• Fat:
50%
12-15%
30-35%
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
How does diet differ?
Optimal diet for most sports:
• Carbohydrate:
60-70%
• Protein:
12%
• Fat:
18-28%
Optimum diet for normal
population:
• Carbohydrate: 50%
• Protein: 12-15%
• Fat: 30-35%
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Typical training day for an elite
Boxer
• Running/Cardio
– 30-60mins
• REST/MEAL
• Sparring/Boxing
– 3min rounds 30sec rest 10-15 rounds
• REST/MEAL
• Weight Training
– 2 muscle groups pre session 4 sets of 20 reps per
muscle group 180 reps per gym session
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Why is an athletes diet different?
• Energy
• Increased energy demands from increased activity
(working muscles)
• Maintenance of energy balance must be assessed
(energy in = energy out)
• Weight loss
• Increased fluid intake
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Carbohydrate
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Preparing for Sport
gut
blood
liver
glycogen
glucose
100 g
glycogen
300 g
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
muscle
University of Ulster
Carbohydrate
• Carbohydrate
• Athletic performance limited by CHO availability
• High intensity + long duration sports
• High CHO diets maximize glycogen stores + 
performance
• After exercise, CHO replenished for subsequent
performance
• Requirements sugar/starch, solid/liquid dependent on:
• Timing + type of physical activity
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Protein
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Protein
• Large Organic compounds Made of amino
acids
• Complex structure difficult to break down
• The body rarely uses protein as a source of
fuel
• Protein often used as a food supplement to aid
muscle growth and prevent weight gain
• Proteins are an extremely important
macromolecule
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Fat
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Fat
• Can be liquid or solid depending on structure
• Different kinds of fats.
– Saturated
– Unsaturated
– Fatty acids (Omega 3,6,9)
• NOT ALL FATS ARE BAD
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Exercise and Supplements
• Diet is important for all athletes
• Due to life style and training programmes and
energy demands its not always possible to gain
requirement from foods.
• Many athletes use food supplements
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Task Two
In groups discuss and list supplements used
everyday by sportspeople? (Legal supplements)
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Types of Supplements
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Carbohydrate shake, and bars
Protein shakes, and bars
Caffeine supplements
Energy drinks
Vitamin supplements
Iron + calcium supplements
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Quick Question
• In groups discuss at what point does
supplementing become cheating?
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athletic substance abuse
“The International Olympic Committee (IOC)
published its first list of banned doping classes
in 1967, in which it listed narcotic analgesics,
sympathomimetic amines, psychomotor
stimulants, and miscellaneous central nervous
system stimulants. Since that time the list has
evolved and grown, with the incorporation of
anabolic steroids in 1974, blockers and
diuretics in 1985, and peptide hormones in
1989”.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Task Three
• In groups list banned substances and examples
of sports these substances are used in.
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University of Ulster
Athletes who have used
Illegal substances
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
• IOC list of banned substances
– Amphetamines
• Reduce fatigue, improve alertness, improve reaction
time, increase aggression and competitiveness. May be
used outside of competition to improve training.
Contained within recreational drugs.
• Release neurotransmitters such as noradrenalin,
dopamine, and serotonin.
• Found in over the counter medicines such as cold
remedies and decongestants.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
– Caffeine
• Stimulant increases reaction time, prolongs endurance,
increases fat metabolism sparing muscle glycogen.
• Widely available in many beverages and OTC
medicines.
• Recently removed from IOC list
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University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
– Cocaine
• Class A recreational drug, performance enhancing
effects of cocaine are inconclusive. Notable for
distorting the users perception of reality.
• Inhibits the uptake of neurotransmitters in particular
dopamine causing a euphoric effect.
• More commonly found as a recreational drug rather than
used to improve performance.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
– β agonists
• potent bronchodilators and may, therefore, improve
performance in aerobic exercise
• Commonly found in asthma inhalers
• Allowed for medical reasons
• 6% of athletes at the 2000 Sydney Olympics declared
the use of β agonists.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
– Anabolic androgenic steroids
• Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are used to
improve strength by increasing lean body mass,
decreasing body fat, prolonging training by enhancing
recovery time, and increasing aggressiveness and
energy.
• cardiovascular, cosmetic, hepatic, infections,
reproductive, and psychiatric.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
• Diuretics
• Diuretics increase the production of urine, and some athletes use them to
try to flush out residue from steroids. They can also be used to shed water
as a temporary weight loss measure in sports with weight categories
(boxing, equestrian sports).
• Narcotics:
• Painkillers used to control pain from injuries or allow athletes to train for
longer. If they are being used in order to ignore an injury, athletes
obviously risk doing further damage.
• Examples: morphine, heroin
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Athlete substance abuse
• Peptide hormones:
• Naturally-occurring substances that circulate in the blood, and can improve
muscle growth, change the balance of other hormones and increase
production of red blood cells, which increases oxygen delivery.
• Examples: insulin, human growth hormone
• Blood doping
• The name of this process is slightly misleading: it should not be confused
with 'doping' in general. Blood doping may or may not involve a drug. It is
the process of artificially increasing the concentration of red blood cells in
the blood. More red cells result in more oxygenated blood reaching the
muscles.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Quick Question
• Can you think of any other factors which can
inhibit performance?
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
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Other performance Inhibitors
Smoking
Drinking
Irregular Sleep
Stress
Injuries
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
What’s in a Cigarette
• Ammonia
– Gas found in floor cleaner and fertilizer
• DDT
– An insecticide
• Phenol
– Toilet Cleaner
• Cadmium
– Found in car batteries
• Arsenic
– A neuron inhibiting poison
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
What’s in a cigarette
• Naphthalene
– Found in explosive
• Carbon Monoxide
– Up to 15% of this gas may be found in a smokers
blood replacing oxygen.
• Tar
– Carcinogenetic deposits' in lungs
• Nicotine
– Makes cigarettes addictive
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University of Ulster
Cigarettes can also contain
• Chocolate
– Used as a flavouring in the butts
• Vanilla
– Give a smoother cooler taste
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University of Ulster
Alcohol
• Alcohol effects all cells in the body, where
ever the blood goes alcohol.
• Alcohol (ethyl alcohol, ethanol) is a drug, but
technically it can also be classified as a
nutrient because it provides energy, about 7
kcal per gram.
• The effects of alcohol are dependant on the
blood alcohol concentration.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Alcohol
• Alcohol may influence both psychological and
physiological processes related to physical
performance.
• Psychologically, alcohol may benefit performance by
increasing self-confidence, decreasing sensitivity to
pain, or removing psychological barriers to
performance.
• However, the most prevalent use of alcohol in sports
competition is related to its ability to reduce excess
anxiety.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Alcohol
• Alcohol has been shown to inhibit
performance in tests of strength, speed and
endurance.
• In professional sport the consumption of
alcohol is usually banned 48hrs pre
performance.
• Effects hydration levels and sleep patterns.
• Alcohol should be avoided post performance
and training as it can impair recovery rates.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Other inhibiting factors
• Sleep
– Sleep is important for the body and the brain, helps
recovery and healing from the stress of exercise.
• Stress
– Emotional stress effects performance be reducing
commitment and concentration levels particularly
important in sports with high skill factors.
• Injuries
– Injuries reduce training intensities and effect performance.
Injuries can be a sign of over training or incorrect diet.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Ulster
Questions
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences