Bullying: Awareness, Prevention and Intervention

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Transcript Bullying: Awareness, Prevention and Intervention

Bullying:
How to Recognize &
Prevent the
Harassment of Students in
Schools
What Do We Think About Bullying?
• When I think back on student bullying and
teasing when I was in school, it makes me think
of…
• Compared to back then, student bullying and
teasing today in schools is…
• Based on recent incidents in the news about
bullying and teasing, I think...
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Who are the Victims of Bullying?
Bullying Definition Components
• Aggressive behavior that intends to cause harm
or distress
• Is repeated over time
• Occurs in a relationship where there is an
imbalance of power or strength
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Definition of Bullying
Bullying among children is commonly defined as
intentional, repeated hurtful acts, words or behavior
such as name-calling, threatening and/or shunning
committed by one or more children against another.
The victims do not intentionally provoke these
negative acts, and for such acts to be defined as
bullying, an imbalance of real or perceived power
must exist between the bully and the victim.
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Why focus on Bullying?
• Short and long-term effects on victims
• Concern about students who bully
• Impact on bystanders
• Effect on school social climate
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Bullying Affects the
Total School Climate
• It interferes with student
learning
• It creates a climate of fear
and disrespect
• Students may perceive
lack of control/caring
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TRUE or FALSE?
___ 1. Bullying is just a part of growing up. The effects of
bullying on victims are short-term and minor.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 1. Bullying is just a part of growing up. The effects of
bullying on victims are short-term and minor.
In addition to the social, emotional, and physical torment of
the actual bullying experience, victims are also more likely than
non-victims to suffer from physical illnesses, academic
troubles, and enduring mental health problems.
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TRUE or FALSE?
2. Bullying is not a serious problem for the bullies; they
eventually grow out of this behavior.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 2. Bullying is not a serious problem for the bullies; they
eventually grow out of this behavior.
Studies have established a strong correlation between bullying
other students during the school years and experiencing antisocial and criminal behavior, with a stronger tendency toward
violence, as adults.
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TRUE or FALSE?
3. Most bullying occurs in high school because older
students are more confident and willing to pick on others.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 3. Most bullying occurs in high school because older
students are more confident and willing to pick on others.
Some studies indicate that bullying is most prevalent during
the elementary school years, while other studies indicate that it
increases and peaks during the middle school years. However,
it is clear that bullying – though certainly present in high school
– is more prevalent among younger students.
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Direct Bullying
Indirect Bullying
• Physical: hitting, kicking,
shoving, spitting
• Physical: getting another person
to assault someone
• Verbal: taunting, teasing,
degrading, racial or sexual
comments
• Verbal: spreading rumors; use
internet to indirectly taunt or
disparage; rally others to join
the bullying
• Non-Verbal: threatening,
obscene gestures
• Non-Verbal: deliberate
exclusion from a group or
activity; cyber-bullying
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TRUE or FALSE?
4. Bullying is usually verbal, not physical, in nature.
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TRUE or FALSE?
T 4. Bullying is usually verbal, not physical, in nature.
While bullying can be physical, verbal, emotional, or sexual in
nature, verbal bullying – including name-calling – is the most
common form.
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TRUE or FALSE?
5. Girls bully just as much as boys; they just do it
differently.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 5. Girls bully just as much as boys; they just do it
differently.
Statistically, boys are more likely to bully other students than
girls, but the way boys and girls bully tends to be different.
Boys tend to be more physical and verbal, while girls tend to be
more relational (i.e., orchestrating social alienation of a singled
out student).
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TRUE or FALSE?
6. Most students who observe bullying don’t think they
should get involved.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 6. Most students who observe bullying don’t think they
should get involved.
In fact, most bystanders want to do the right thing, but they’re
not sure what to do or may be frightened to intervene.
- 38% think they should do nothing because it is none of their
business.
- 27% say they don’t do anything but they think they should.
- 35% of students say they try to help the victim.
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Gender Differences Related
to Bullying Behavior
• Boys tend to bully/harass with physical or verbal aggression.
• Girls tend to bully/harass with social aggression.
• Boys who bully tend to be 1 – 2 years older than their victims.
Their victims can be either boys or girls.
• Girls who bully tend to target other girls who are the same age.
• Girls are more likely to be bullied by a group.
• Girls are more likely to involve both boys and girls in their bullying
pursuits against the victim.
• Boys identify their behaviors as bullying more often than girls.
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Bullying affects everyone…
The Victim
The Bully
The Bystanders
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Two Types of Bullying Victims
Passive Victims
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Are the most common type of
victims, easy to identify
Lack social skills
Cry easily
Lack the ability to use humor to
defuse conflict
May be lonely and depressed
Yield easily to bullying
Are likely to be anxious and
insecure
Are unable to defend themselves
Provocative Victims
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•
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Comprise a much smaller group,
are often difficult to recognize as
victims
Are restless children who irritate
and tease others and don’t know
when to stop
Fight back in bullying situations
but end up losing
Are easily emotionally aroused
Tend to maintain the conflict and
lose with frustration and distress
Often try to make others feel
they deserve to be bullied
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Effects of Bullying on Victims
Mild
Severe
Moderate
Fear;
anxiety;
self-doubt
Avoidance
behaviors;
change in
personality;
low selfesteem
Isolation from
peers; trouble
sleeping; impact
on school work;
loss of interest in
hobbies or social
behavior
Depression;
Violence
consuming fear; toward selfsense of
or others
alienation;
physical illness;
suicidal
thoughts
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Bystanders
• Make up 85% of school population “silent majority”
• Become desensitized to the bullying over time
• Why don’t bystanders get involved?
– Fear of retaliation
– Don’t know what to do
– Afraid they’ll make things worse
– Worry about losing social status
– Don’t believe that adults will help
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Bystanders may…
• Feel it’s none of their business
• Feel afraid, e.g., for personal safety
• Feel powerless to change things
• Feel guilty
• Feel diminished empathy for victims
• Join in on the bullying (watch, cheer)
• In some cases, be “henchmen” for the bully
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Considering Bullies and Their Behavior
• Bullies have low self-esteem. Their behavior satisfies
their self-esteem and they are not likely to stop bullying
on their own
• The behavior may be part of or lead to a conductdisordered behavior pattern
• This pattern may continue into adulthood and take
shape in various relationships (e.g., asocial behavior,
domestic violence)
• Bullies are 4 times more likely than non-bullies to have
3 or more convictions by age 24
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What Do Experts Say About Bullying?
Bullying in Our Schools
ABC News
Dr. William Pollack
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TRUE or FALSE?
7. Bullies don’t usually pick on passive students; instead,
they bully in response to some sort of provocation from their
victims.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 7. Bullies don’t usually pick on passive students; instead,
they bully in response to some sort of provocation from their
victims.
Only 10-15% of victims actually provoke bullies into action. 8590% of victims are passive, with many not even reporting that
they have been bullied. The fact that so many victims have
done nothing to provoke the bullying makes it even more
difficult for the victim to understand – it feels even more
random, unpredictable, and unfair.
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TRUE or FALSE?
8. A bully usually attacks when no one else is watching.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 8. A bully usually attacks when no one else is watching.
Because the bully wants to feel powerful, he/she almost always
bullies a victim in front of others to impress or intimidate.
Other students are frequently watching as bystanders during
most bullying incidents. In contrast, adults — such as teachers
and parents — rarely observe bullies victimizing others.
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TRUE or FALSE?
9. Most bullying happens at school.
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TRUE or FALSE?
T 9. Most bullying happens at school.
Bullying most often occurs in and around schools — specifically
in those areas where there is little or no adult supervision (e.g.,
playground, hallways, cafeteria, classroom before the lesson
begins). This requires active supervision of students, especially
when they are between classes, in cafeteria, on the playground
or in the hallways.
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TRUE or FALSE?
10. If students would just fight back, then bullies would
leave them alone.
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TRUE or FALSE?
F 10. If students would just fight back, then bullies would
leave them alone.
Fighting back is likely to escalate a bullying situation. In other
words, it can lead to more aggression and possibly serious
injury. Bullies usually try to unnerve and provoke others — so
fighting back just gives them what they want. Fighting back by
the victim can also serve to justify the bully’s actions.
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Understanding Bullying in Schools &
What We Can Do About It
In groups of four, each person reads one of the following
articles:
• Myths About Bullying
• Children Who Bully
• The Scope & Impact of Bullying
• How to Intervene & Stop Bullying: Tips for On-the-Spot
Intervention at School
Then each person summarizes key ideas to the rest of the
group
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What Can We Do in Our Schools?
• Insist on respectful interactions between students & show
students that you care about them.
• Reinforce positive behaviors by bringing attention to acts
of kindness.
• Be firm with students: “We don’t use that language or
behave that way toward others in this school.”
• Look for signs of student distress:
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Avoidance of others
Changes in personality or mood
Distracted from school work
Fear of being alone
• If you see something, say something: Bring any concern to
the attention of an administrator.
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Who are the Victims of Bullying?
Bullying Circle
(Olweus)
THE BULLYING CIRCLE: STUDENTS’ MODES OF REACTION/ROLES IN
AN ACUTE BULLYING SITUATION
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