Effective Groups and Teams by Suhel Khan

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Transcript Effective Groups and Teams by Suhel Khan

Lecture 1
Effective Groups and Teams
by
Suhel Khan
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Contemporary Management, 5/e
Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
• Explain why groups and teams are key
contributors to organizational effectiveness.
• Identify the different types of groups and
teams that help managers and organizations
achieve their goals.
• Explain how different elements of group
dynamics influence the functioning and
effectiveness of groups and teams.
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Learning Objectives
• Explain why it is important for groups and
teams to have a balance of conformity and
deviance and a moderate level of
cohesiveness.
• Describe how managers can motivate group
members to achieve organizational goals
and reduce social loafing in groups and
teams.
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Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Group
– Two or more people
who interact with each
other to accomplish
certain goals or meet
certain needs.
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Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Team
– A group whose members work intensely with
each other to achieve a specific, common goal
or objective.
– All teams are groups but not all groups are
teams.
• Teams often are difficult to form.
• It takes time for members to learn how to work
together.
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Groups, Teams and
Organizational Effectiveness
• Two characteristics distinguish teams from
groups
– Intensity with which team members work
together
– Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or
objective
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Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• Advantage of synergy
– People working in a group are able to produce
more outputs than would have been produced if
each person had worked separately
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Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• Factors that contribute to synergy
– Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one
another
– To correct one another’s mistakes
– To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a
problem
– To accomplish work that is too vast for any one
individual to achieve
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Groups and Teams as
Performance Enhancers
• To take advantage of the potential for synergy,
managers need to make sure groups are
composed of members who have
complementary
skills and knowledge
relevant to the
group’s work
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Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to
Organizational Effectiveness
Figure 15.1
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Groups and Teams and
Responsiveness to Customers
• Responsiveness to Customers
– Difficult to achieve given the many constraints.
• Safety issues, regulations, costs.
– Cross-functional teams can provide the wide
variety of skills needed to meet customer
demands.
• Teams consist of members of different departments.
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Teams and Innovation
• Innovation
– The creative development of new products, new
technologies, new services, or new
organizational structures
• Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills
needed for successful innovation.
• Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and
balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses
• Managers should empower the team and make it
accountable for the innovation process.
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Groups and Teams as Motivators
• Members of groups, and particularly teams,
are often better motivated and satisfied than
individuals.
– Team members are more motivated and satisfied
than if they were working alone.
– Team members can see the effect of their
contribution to achieving team and
organizational goals.
– Teams provide needed social interaction and help
employees cope with work-related stressors.
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The Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations
Figure 15.2
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Question?
Which type of group is one that managers
establish to achieve organization goals?
A. Formal group
B. Informal group
C. Virtual team
D. Interest group
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The Types of Groups and Teams
• Formal Group
– A group that managers establish to achieve
organization goals.
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Formal Groups
• Cross-functional teams
– composed of members from different
departments
• Cross-cultural teams
– composed of members from different cultures or
countries
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The Types of Groups and Teams
• Informal Group
– A group that managers or nonmanagerial
employees form to help achieve their own goals
or to meet their own needs.
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The Types of Groups and Teams
T yp e o f T e a m
T o p -m a n a g e m e n t
te a m
A g r o u p c o m p o s e d o f th e C E O , th e p r e s ident,
a n d th e h e a d s o f th e m o s t im p o r ta n t
d e p a r tm e n ts
Re s e a r c h a n d
d e v e lo p m e n t te a m
A te a m w h o s e m e m b e r s h a v e th e e x p e r tis e
a n d e x p e r ie n c e n e e d e d to d e v e lo p n e w
p r o d u c ts
C om m and grou ps
A g r o u p c o m p o s e d o f s u b o r d in a te s w h o
r e p o r t to th e s a m e s u p e r v is o r , a ls o c a lle d a
d e p a r tm e n t o r u n it,
T a s k fo r c e s
A c o m m itte e o f m a n a g e r s o r n o n m a n a g e r ia l
e m p lo y e e s fr o m v a r io u s d e p a r tm e n ts o r
d iv is io n s w h o m e e t to s o lv e a s p e c ific ,
m u tu a l p r o b le m ; a ls o c a lle d a n “ a d h o c ”
c o m m itte e
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The Types of Groups and Teams
T yp e o f T e a m
S e lf-m a n a g e d w o r k
te a m
A g r o u p o f e m p lo y e e s w h o s u p e r v is e th e ir
o w n a c tiv itie s a n d m o n ito r th e q u a lity o f th e
g o o d s a n d s e r v ic e s th e y p r o v id e .
V ir tu a l te a m
A te a m w h o s e m e m b e r s r a r e ly o r n e v e r m e e t
fa c e to fa c e a n d in te r a c t b y u s in g v a r io u s
fo r m s o f in fo r m a tio n te c h n o lo g y s u c h a s
e m a il, c o m p u te r n e tw o r k s , te le p h o n e , fax and
v id e o c o n fe r e n c e s .
F r ie n d s h ip g r o u p
An in fo r m a l g r o u p c o m p o s e d o f e m p lo y e e s
w h o e n jo y e a c h o th e r ’s c o m p a n y a n d
s o c ia liz e w ith e a c h o th e r .
In te r e s t g r o u p
An in fo r m a l g r o u p c o m p o s e d o f e m p lo y e e s
s e e k in g to a c h ie v e a c o m m o n g o a l r e la te d to
th e ir m e m b e r s h ip in a n o r g a n iz a tio n .
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Self-Managed Work Teams
Keys to effective self managed teams:
– Give the team enough responsibility and
autonomy to be self-managing.
– The team’s task should be complex enough to
include many different steps.
– Select members carefully for their diversity, skills,
and enthusiasm.
– Managers should guide and coach, not supervise.
– Determine training needs and be sure it is
provided.
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Virtual Teams
• A team whose members rarely meet face-toface
• Interact by using various forms of
information technology
• Email, computer networks, telephone, fax,
and videoconferences
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Friendship Groups
An informal group composed of employees
who enjoy one another’s company and
socialize with
one another
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Interest Groups
An informal group of employees seeking to
achieve a common goal related to their
membership in an organization
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Group Size
• Advantage of small groups
– Interact more with each other and easier to
coordinate their efforts
– More motivated, satisfied, and committed
– Easier to share information
– Better able to see the importance of their
personal contributions
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Group Size
• Advantages of large groups
– More resources at their disposal to achieve group
goals
– Enables managers to obtain division of labor
advantages
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Group Size
• Disadvantages of large groups
– Problem of communication and coordination
– Lower level of motivation
– Members might not think their efforts are really
needed
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Group Tasks
• Group tasks impact how a group interacts.
– Task interdependence shows how the work of one
member impacts another; as interdependence
rises, members must work more closely together.
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