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The American Nation
Chapter 18
Reconstruction and the
Changing South, 1863–
1896
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The American Nation
Chapter 18: Reconstruction and the Changing South,
1863–1896
Section 1:
Early Steps to Reunion
Section 2:
Radical Reconstruction
Section 3:
The South Under Reconstruction
Section 4:
The End of Reconstruction
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Early Steps to Reunion
Chapter 18, Section 1
• Why were postwar problems more severe in
the South than in the North?
• What early steps were taken toward
reconstruction?
• How did the assassination of Lincoln and the
inauguration of a new President lead to
conflict?
Postwar Problems
Chapter 18, Section 1
North
Returning Union soldiers needed jobs. Yet, because the
government was canceling war orders, factories were laying off
workers.
South
• Destruction—Homes, barns, bridges and the railroad system
were destroyed. The cities of Columbia, Richmond, and Atlanta
had been leveled.
• Economic ruin—After the war, Confederate money was
worthless. People who had loaned money to the Confederacy
were never repaid. Many banks closed, and depositors lost
their savings.
• A changed society—Almost overnight, there was a new class
of freedmen—men and women who had been slaves. What
would become of them
The Postwar Nation
Chapter 18, Section 1
Early Steps Toward Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 1
Reconstruction—the rebuilding of the South
Lincoln’s Plan, called the Ten Percent Plan
• A southern state could form a new government after 10 percent of its
voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States.
• The new government had to abolish slavery. Voters could then once
again elect members of Congress.
• The plan offered amnesty, or a government pardon, to Confederates
who swore loyalty to the Union. Former Confederate leaders could
not be given amnesty, however.
Wade-Davis Bill, a rival Republican plan. Lincoln refused to sign the bill.
• A majority of white men in each southern state had to swear loyalty
to the Union.
• Anyone who had volunteered to fight for the Confederacy would be
denied the right to vote or hold office.
The Freedmen’s Bureau
Chapter 18, Section 1
Congress and the President did agree on one plan. One month
before Lee surrendered, Congress passed a bill creating the
Freedmen’s Bureau, a government agency to help former
slaves. The agency helped poor whites as well.
• Gave food and clothing to former slaves.
• Tried to find jobs for freedmen.
• Provided medical care.
• Set up schools. Most of the teachers were volunteers from
the North.
• The Bureau created colleges for African Americans,
including Howard, Morehouse, and Fisk.
Lincoln’s Assassination and Johnson’s Inauguration
Lead to Conflict
Chapter 18, Section 1
•
•
•
•
•
President Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865. Andrew
Johnson became President. He proposed a Reconstruction plan:
• A majority of voters in each southern state had to pledge loyalty
to the Union.
• Each state had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which
banned slavery throughout the nation.
The southern states quickly met Johnson’s conditions. The President
approved their new state governments in late 1865.
Southern voters elected representatives to the Senate and House.
Republicans in Congress were outraged that many of those elected
had held office in the Confederacy. No southern state allowed African
Americans to vote.
Congress refused to let southern representatives take their seats.
Instead, they set up a Joint Committee on Reconstruction to form a
new Reconstruction plan.
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 1
One task the Freedmen’s Bureau accomplished was to
a) set up schools for former slaves.
b) try to move as many former slaves as possible to the North.
c) get former slaves to rebuild the plantations where they had lived.
d) help Confederate soldiers adjust to returning home.
Many Republicans in Congress were outraged with Johnson’s Reconstruction
plan because
a) only 10 percent of southern voters had to swear an oath of loyalty to the
Union.
b) it called on the southern states to abolish slavery.
c) it denied the right to vote or hold office to former Confederate soldiers.
d) it allowed former Confederate officials to be elected to Congress.
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Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 1
One task the Freedmen’s Bureau accomplished was to
a) set up schools for former slaves.
b) try to move as many former slaves as possible to the North.
c) get former slaves to rebuild the plantations where they had lived.
d) help Confederate soldiers adjust to returning home.
Many Republicans in Congress were outraged with Johnson’s Reconstruction
plan because
a) only 10 percent of southern voters had to swear an oath of loyalty to the
Union.
b) it called on the southern states to abolish slavery.
c) it denied the right to vote or hold office to former Confederate soldiers.
d) it allowed former Confederate officials to be elected to Congress.
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Radical Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 2
• How did Congress react to the passage of
black codes in the South?
• How did Radical Republicans gain power in
Congress?
• Why was President Johnson impeached?
Congress Reacts to Black Codes
Chapter 18, Section 2
black codes—laws passed by southern states that severely limited the
rights of freedmen
How did black codes affect freedmen?
• Black codes granted some rights. African Americans could marry
legally and own some property.
• Black codes kept freedmen from gaining political and economic
power. They forbade freedmen to vote, own guns, or serve on juries.
• In some states, African Americans could work only as servants or
farm laborers. In others, they had to sign contracts for a year’s work.
How did Congress react to black codes?
• Angered by black codes, Republicans charged that Johnson’s lenient
Reconstruction plan had encouraged the codes.
• Republicans were also angered by southern white violence against
freedmen.
Congress Reacts to Black Codes
Chapter 18, Section 2
How did Congress react to black codes?
• The Joint Committee on Reconstruction accused
the South of trying to “preserve slavery . . . as
long as possible.”
• When President Johnson ignored the report of
the Joint Committee, members of Congress who
were called Radical Republicans vowed to take
control of Reconstruction.
Radical Republicans Gain Power
Chapter 18, Section 2
•
•
•
•
Radical Republicans had two main goals.
• Break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled
the South.
• Ensure that freedmen received the right to vote.
Radical Republicans needed the support of moderate
Republicans. Most southerners were Democrats. Republicans
could control both houses if southerners were barred from
Congress.
To combat the black codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights
Act in April 1866. It gave citizenship to African Americans.
Republicans proposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which
granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States. It
guaranteed citizens “equal protection of the laws” and said
that no state could “deprive any person of life, liberty, or
property without due process of law.”
Radical Republicans Gain Power
Chapter 18, Section 2
• In the Election of 1866, President Johnson opposed the
Fourteenth Amendment and urged voters to reject the
Radicals. Southern violence convinced many northerners
that strong measures were needed, so they backed the
Republicans. Republicans won majorities in both houses of
Congress.
• The period that followed the election is often called Radical
Reconstruction. Congress passed the first Reconstruction
Act in March 1867. It threw out state governments that had
refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Reconstruction Plans
Chapter 18, Section 2
Plan
Ten Percent Plan
Wade-Davis Bill
Johnson Plan
Reconstruction
Act
Proposed by
President
Abraham Lincoln
(1863)
Republicans in
Congress (1864)
President Andrew
Johnson (1865)
Radical
Republicans
(1867)
Conditions for
Former
Confederate
States to Rejoin
Union
• 10 percent of
voters must
swear loyalty to
Union
• Must abolish
slavery
• Majority of
white men
must swear
loyalty
• Former
Confederate
volunteers
cannot vote or
hold office
• Majority of
white men
must swear
loyalty
• Must ratify
Thirteenth
Amendment
• Former
Confederate
officials may
vote and hold
office
• Must disband
state
governments
• Must write new
constitutions
• Must ratify
Fourteenth
Amendment
• African
American men
must be
allowed to vote
Andrew Johnson Impeached
Chapter 18, Section 2
• Because Johnson tried to limit the effect of Radical
Reconstruction, Congress tried to remove him from office.
• On February 24, 1868, the House of Representatives voted
to impeach, or bring formal charges against, Johnson.
• The President could be removed from office if two thirds of
the Senate found him guilty of “high crimes and
misdemeanors.” During Johnson’s trial, it became clear
that he was not guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors.
• In the end, the Senate vote was 35 to 19 against Johnson—
just one vote shy of the two thirds needed to convict him.
The Civil War Amendments
Chapter 18, Section 2
Thirteenth Amendment
• Bans slavery throughout the United States.
Fourteenth Amendment
• Grants citizenship to all persons born in the
United States.
• Guarantees citizens equal protection of the
laws. No state can deprive any person of life,
liberty, or property with due process of law.
Fifteenth Amendment
• Forbids any state to deny any citizens the
right to vote because of race.
Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 2
Angered by the South’s response to Johnson’s Reconstruction plan,
Republicans in Congress accused the South of
a) trying to preserve slavery as long as possible.
b) moving too fast to find work for former enslaved African Americans.
c) refusing to give any rights to freedmen.
d) letting freedmen work without signing contracts.
To “impeach” a President means that
a) the House of Representatives finds the President guilty of high crimes
and misdemeanors.
b) the House of Representatives brings formal charges against the
President.
c) the Senate finds the President guilty of the charges the House brought.
d) the Senate officially removes the President from office.
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Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 2
Angered by the South’s response to Johnson’s Reconstruction plan,
Republicans in Congress accused the South of
a) trying to preserve slavery as long as possible.
b) moving too fast to find work for former enslaved African Americans.
c) refusing to give any rights to freedmen.
d) letting freedmen work without signing contracts.
To “impeach” a President means that
a) the House of Representatives finds the President guilty of high crimes
and misdemeanors.
b) the House of Representatives brings formal charges against the
President.
c) the Senate finds the President guilty of the charges the House brought.
d) the Senate officially removes the President from office.
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The South Under Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 3
• What groups of people made up the new forces in
southern politics?
• How did southern Conservatives resist
Reconstruction?
• What challenges did Reconstruction
governments face?
• How did many southerners become locked into a
cycle of poverty?
New Forces in Southern Politics
Chapter 18, Section 3
White
southern
Republicans
•
•
Northerners
•
•
•
•
African
Americans
•
Some whites supported the new Republican
governments. They wanted to get on with rebuilding the
South.
Many white southerners felt that any southerner who
helped the Republicans was a traitor. They called the
white
Republicans
scalawags. who came to the
White southern
southerners
accused northerners
South of hoping to get rich from the South’s misery. The
southerners called these northerners carpetbaggers.
Some northerners did hope to profit from rebuilding the
South.
Some former Union soldiers went to the South because
they had come to love the land during the war.
Some northerners went South to help the freedmen.
During Reconstruction, African Americans voted in large
numbers. They also ran for and were elected to public
office. Two African Americans served in the Senate.
Southern Conservatives Resisted Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 3
• Conservatives—white southerners who had held
power before the Civil War and who resisted
Reconstruction; they wanted the South to change as
little as possible.
• A few wealthy planters tried to force African
Americans back onto plantations. Many small farmers
and laborers wanted the government to take action
against freedmen to stop them from competing for
land and power.
• Some white southerners formed secret societies to
help them regain power. The most dangerous was the
Ku Klux Klan, or KKK. They conducted a campaign of
terror and violence to keep African Americans and
white Republicans out of office.
The Challenges Reconstruction Governments Faced
Chapter 18, Section 3
Despite their problems, Reconstruction governments
tried to rebuild the South. They built public schools for
both black and white children, gave women the right to
own property, and rebuilt railroads, telegraph lines,
bridges, and roads.
In rebuilding the South, Reconstruction governments
met several challenges.
• To pay for rebuilding, Reconstruction governments
raised taxes sharply. This created discontent among
southern whites.
• Some Reconstruction officials were corrupt, which
angered southerners.
A Cycle of Poverty
Chapter 18, Section 3
Some Radical Republicans talked about giving each freedman
“40 acres and a mule” to help them get started, but that never
happened.
• A few freedmen were able to buy land.
• Many freedmen and poor whites went to work on large
plantations. These sharecroppers rented and farmed a plot
of land.
• The planters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in return for
a share of the crop.
• Most sharecroppers and small landowners bought supplies
on credit in the spring. In the fall, they had to repay what
they had borrowed. If the harvest did not cover what they
owed, they sank deeper into debt.
Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 3
Many white southern Conservatives resisted Reconstruction because they
wanted
a) to forget the war and get on with rebuilding the South.
b) the South to change as little as possible.
c) African Americans to hold important offices.
d) to cooperate with the Republicans.
One accomplishment of the Reconstruction governments was
a) breaking up plantations to give land to freedmen.
b) ending all corruption.
c) disbanding the Ku Klux Klan.
d) rebuilding thousands of miles of railroad track.
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Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 3
Many white southern Conservatives resisted Reconstruction because they
wanted
a) to forget the war and get on with rebuilding the South.
b) the South to change as little as possible.
c) African Americans to hold important offices.
d) to cooperate with the Republicans.
One accomplishment of the Reconstruction governments was
a) breaking up plantations to give land to freedmen.
b) ending all corruption.
c) disbanding the Ku Klux Klan.
d) rebuilding thousands of miles of railroad track.
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The End of Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 4
• What events led to the end of
Reconstruction?
• How were the rights of African Americans
restricted in the South after Reconstruction?
• What industries flourished in the “New
South”?
The End of Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 4
• By 1870, Radical Republicans were losing power.
Northerners were growing tired of trying to reform the
South. In addition, disclosure of widespread corruption
turned people against the Republican party.
• In 1872, Congress passed the Amnesty Act. It restored the
right to vote to nearly all white southerners. They voted
solidly Democratic and kept many African Americans from
voting.
• The election of 1876 ended Reconstruction. After a dispute
in the Electoral College, a special commission set up by
Congress settled the election. The commission awarded the
election to Rutherford B. Hayes. Although he was a
Republican, he had privately agreed to end Reconstruction
once in office.
The End of Reconstruction
Chapter 18, Section 4
Restricted Rights for African Americans in the South
Chapter 18, Section 4
Voting restrictions
• Many southern states passed poll taxes, requiring voters to pay a fee to
vote. Poor freedmen could rarely afford to vote.
• States also passed literacy tests that required voters to read and explain
part of the Constitution. Since most freedmen had little education, such
tests kept them from voting.
• Many poor whites could not pass literacy tests, so states passed
grandfather clauses. These laws stated that if a voter’s father or
grandfather could vote on January 1, 1867, then the voter did not have to
take a literacy test. (No African Americans could vote before 1868.)
Segregation, or legal separation of races
• In southern states, Jim Crow laws separated blacks and whites in schools,
restaurants, theaters, trains, streetcars, playgrounds, hospitals, and even
cemeteries.
• In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that
segregation was legal so long as facilities for blacks and whites were
equal. In fact, facilities were rarely equal.
Industry in the “New South”
Chapter 18, Section 4
“New South”—Atlanta journalist Henry Grady talked of a “New
South”— a South that used its resources to build up its own industry
and not depend on the North.
Agricultural resources
• Southern communities started building textile mills to turn cotton
into cloth.
• New machinery revolutionized the manufacture of tobacco
products.
New industries
• Alabama made use of its large deposits of iron ore and coal to
become a center of the steel industry.
• Oil refineries sprang up in Louisiana and Texas.
• Other states produced copper, granite, and marble.
• Southern factories turned out cypress shingles and hardwood
furniture.
Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 4
For African Americans in the South, the end of Reconstruction meant that
a) the political rights promised in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth
Amendments were finally secure.
b) they steadily lost the ability to exercise their political rights.
c) their businesses could compete on an equal basis with white
businesses.
d) at last they were free to vote in local elections, as well as national
elections.
When people spoke of a “New South,” they meant that
a) African Americans and whites would now work side by side.
b) the South would turn to agriculture and let the North do all the
manufacturing.
c) the South would use its natural resources to build up its own industries.
d) cotton would replace all other crops.
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Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 4
For African Americans in the South, the end of Reconstruction meant that
a) the political rights promised in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth
Amendments were finally secure.
b) they steadily lost the ability to exercise their political rights.
c) their businesses could compete on an equal basis with white
businesses.
d) at last they were free to vote in local elections, as well as national
elections.
When people spoke of a “New South,” they meant that
a) African Americans and whites would now work side by side.
b) the South would turn to agriculture and let the North do all the
manufacturing.
c) the South would use its natural resources to build up its own industries.
d) cotton would replace all other crops.
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