Name Joan of Arc’s 2 greatest accomplishments.
Name Joan of Arc’s 2 greatest accomplishments.
Identify 3 early sources of law.
Hammurabi’s Code, The 12 Tables
from Rome, the 10
Who was the Father of Greek
Philosophy? What method did he
use to find truth?
Socrates, question and question
to find truth
How did Aristotle believe you
could find the best government?
Evaluating existing governments
Who took Greek ideas and spread
them throughout the Middle East
and Northern Africa?
Alexander the Great
What two things allowed for a
dramatic change in population
growth between 1000-1300.
more peaceful conditions (less
war) and better agriculture
What was the purpose of the
Crusades? Who usually went on
Retake the Holy Land from the
“infidel”, noblemen & knights
looking for glory and salvation
Middle Age universities were
dedicated to what school of thought?
What two things did peasants get
in exchange for giving up their
freedom to the lord of the manor?
Protection and the use of land
Identify at least three of the
“obligations” placed on peasants.
Pay a portion of crop to lord, rent
pastureland, tithes to the
church, portion of catch to the
Identify three ways the lords
exercised control over their
Permission to leave, permission to
marry, lords run local courts,
lords control crafts and trades
for their peasants
What two areas did scholasticism
attempt to reconcile?
Faith (xianity) and reason
Who was the most well known
scholastic? What was his most
Thomas Aquinas, Summa
Name two examples of church
corruption during the Middle Ages.
simony, legal exemptions, tax
exemptions, clerical infidelity,
misuse of church funds
Name 2 of the main ways that the
Black Death impacted Europe.
decreased supply of labor, increased
power of poor, decreased demand
for land, decreased power of
Identify the four basic levels of the
Pope - Cardinal - Bishop - Priest
What was a vassal expected to give
loyally in exchange for his fief?
Name two benefits the serf received
in the manorial system.
protection from outside threat, food
during shortages, legal protection
How did France ultimately benefit
from the 100 Years War?
regained much lost territory
Who was the local legal authority in
the feudal system?
the lord (vassal)
Name Michelangelo’s most
famous painting & sculpture.
Sistene Chapel & David
Who wrote “The Prince” and hoped
that a strong Italian ruler would
come from the Medicis? What quality
did he value?
How did Renaissance Art differ from
art from the Middle Ages?
realism, accurate anatomy, secular
What economic developments
allowed for secular patronage of the
increased trade & banking
Who was the father of
Humanism? What kind of activity
did he inspire?
Petrarch, Examination of the
classics, and writing related to
List two reasons the church feared
Self-reliance, outside interpretations,
authorities other than God
What invention caused literacy to
boom and made it much easier
for thinkers to spread their ideas?
Roughly when was it invented?
printing press, late 1400’s
Name the work and author that
describe an ideal society that will
Utopia, Thomas More
Identify the two major northern
More & Erasmus
What was Erasmus’ philosophy a
Christian and classical beliefs
Identify two classical features that
were prominent in Ren. Architecture.
Domes, columns, roman arches,
How was the subject matter of the
Northern Ren. a departure from the
How did members of the
Schmalkaldic League and Henry
VIII benefit from the Reformation
Took over Church lands &
Who said: “We are all equal in the
eyes of God, members of the
Priesthood of all Believers”?
What conclusion pushed Luther to
write the 95 Theses?
That man is saved through Faith
and not works or indulgences
Which theologian believed people
were predestined for salvation?
What tool did Calvin use to create
his “New Jerusalem”?
Strict moral code (spread through
sermons and Catechism)
List three components of Calvin’s
No drinking, no dancing, no plays,
religious music & psalm reading in
What was the main reason Henry
VIII started the English
Wanted an annulment from
Catharine, desired control over
church structure & resources
How was the Anglican Church
that Henry VIII created different
from Roman Catholicism?
It was different organizationally
because the king was in charge,
it was not different theologically
Under which monarch did England
become truly Protestant
Which English monarch attempted
to reinstate Roman Catholicism?
Was she successful?
Mary I, no she was not
What three religious groups did
Elizabeth I face when she came to
the throne? What did she
recognize as the official religion of
RCs, Anglicans, & Puritans;
Anglicanism (Church of England)
Identify two key components of
the Roman Catholic Counter
Founding new orders (like the
Jesuits), the Inquisition,
emphasis on discipline, the
Index of Forbidden Books
What type of art reflected the spirit
of the Counter Reformation? What
did the RC church hope it would
Baroque, bring people back to the
What is Baroque Art designed to
Get an emotional response/reaction
What two groups were fighting
each other in the French Religious
The Huguenots and the Catholic
How did Henry of Navarre bring a
close to conflict in France?
converting to RC & issuing the
Edict of Nantes which protected
Why did Phillip II of Spain want
to keep control of the
He wanted to keep them Catholic
and he needed the tax $$$
Which protestant group wanted
to rid the Anglican Church of all
Catholic practices and structures?
Who wanted Mary Queen of Scots
to be Queen of England? Why
was she executed?
Phillip II and other RCs, Plotting
to kill Elizabeth I
What was the impact of the Thirty
Years War on Germany?
Total devastation, kills 1/3 of
What is the main goal of
strengthen your nation’s economy
at the expense of another nation
What kinds of practices do
mercantilist nations use?
tariffs, colonies, sea trade,
support for industry, shipping
regulations, full employment,
What two classical thinkers were
most of the early scientific beliefs
Aristotle & Ptolemy
What were the two key
components of Copernicus’
theory about the universe?
The sun is in the middle, the
planets travel in circular orbits
Who was Brahe’s assistant that
conclusions from Brahe’s charts?
How did the church respond to
Galileo’s use of the telescope?
They condemned it, “God would
have made us able to see it”
Who was the father of modern
philosophy and the deductive
Descartes (“I Think therefore I
Who was the champion of the
empirical method? What does
this method encourage?
Bacon, observations based on lots
Who was the first scientist to
maintain that mathematical
relationships explain everything?
What major events were the
two of the main influences on
Hobbes & Locke?
English Civil War, Louis XIV &
List two of Locke’s major beliefs.
blank slate, overthrow bad gov’t,
natural state is freedom,
natural rights: life, liberty &
Who believed that people must
turn over their rights to a strong
ruler his rule would prevent
How did Hobbes’ absolute ruler
control his people?
Manipulating their fear of pain
and desire for pleasure
Who are the three most
Montesquieu, Voltaire, &
Why would you associate
Voltaire with our First
he advocated basic freedoms
(speech, press, petition, etc.)
Name the author that advocated
Laissez Faire Economics. What
economic system was he
Adam Smith, mercantilism
In what role did the Deists place
“divine watchmaker”, created
world and stood back, men
control own actions
What did Montesquieu argue
was the best form of gov’t?
Three branch, separation of
Name three major beliefs of
Importance of society over
individual, bend to will,
glorified motherhood, Men &
Women in separate spheres
Why was the first encyclopedia
such a major undertaking? Who
first time any group tried to
compile “all” knowledge,
If you had to sum up the
enlightenment in one word,
what would it be?
What two sides clashed in the
English Civil War?
The Anglican Monarchists and the
What was the key outcome of the
Glorious Revolution in England?
William III and Mary accepted the
English Bill of Rights and the
terms of a constitutional
Who was the absolute monarch?
Identify two characteristics of his
Louis XIV, army, propaganda,
Name one factor that may have
led to the population boom that
started in the mid-1700’s.
End of the plague, less warfare,
What were Jethro Tull’s two main
contributions to the Ag. Rev.?
iron plow and seed drill
Name the two crops that were
introduced from the New World.
How did these help?
potatoes & corn, more variety in
diet and helped replenish the
Why did landlords want to
enclose their lands?
higher bread prices, wanted to
force the use of new methods to
What happened to many
peasants as a result of enclosure?
cut loose from the land, forced to
look for other employment
In which industry did the
Industrial Revolution start? Why?
textiles, the larger population
needed to be clothed
What did the flying shuttle create
a demand for? What invention
helped solve this?
thread/yarn, spinning jenny
Name two reasons the Industrial
Revolution started in Great
coal & iron, individual liberties,
roads & waterways, relatively
mobile social structure
Name 2 benefits of the steam
Move factories away from rivers,
constant source of power, leads
to development of cities
What did many “new” cities lack
that would have helped them
handle the influx of people?
infrastructure (roads, sewers,
In what kinds of places did the
“new cities” spring up?
waterways, road hubs, sea ports
Why did the Bourgeoisie resent
inherited legal rights & privileges
What system was replaced by the
cottage or “putting-out”
How did GB try to address the
massive war debt they were left
with after the 7 Years War? What
was the response to this?
Taxing their colonists, the
colonists hated it
Name three causes of the French
Food shortages & prices, heavy
taxation of poor, little taxation of
nobles & clergy, bourgeoisie vs.
nobles, nobles vs. monarchy
What group did the 3rd Estate
form when they left the Estates
General? What did they promise
in the Tennis Court Oath?
National Assembly, keep meeting
until they wrote a constitution
What did Louis XVI do to cause
the poor to storm the Bastille?
muster troops around Paris which
made them think he was going
to stop the revolution
How did French nobles react to
the Great Fear?
renounced their rights, cleared
the way for a Constitution
Identify a way in which Louis XVI
demonstrated his antirevolutionary sentiment.
muster troops, stall on Dec. of
Rights, flee to Varennes,
Why did the women of Paris
march on Versailles?
food, make Louis agree to Dec. of
Despite their active participation
in the revolution, which two
groups were consistently left out
of the benefits?
poor (esp. urban) & women
What kind of reaction did the
invasion by Austria & Prussia
panic, fear, “invasion mentality”
What tool did the Convention use
to mobilize France for war? name
two components of this tool.
levee en masse; conscription of all
males, price ceilings, war
What two places did the Dec. of
Rights of Man and Citizen get its
Declaration of Independence &
What radical member of the third
estate led the Reign of Terror?
What eventually happened to
Robespierre, he was guillotined
Name two parts of the Napoleonic
civic equality, no guilds,
promotion based on merit, end
to social hierarchy, religious
What two groups supported
Napoleon’s rise to power?
bourgeoisie & land owning
Name two things Napoleon did to
squash his people who opposed
Centralize government, execution,
give them high government
posts (with little power), secret
Who formed the Quadruple
Alliance against him?
GB, Austria, Prussia, Russia
Who supported the Spanish
Guerillas against Napoleon?
RC Church & GB (Wellington)
What strategy did the Russians
use to defeat Napoleon after his
invasion in 1812?
Scorched earth (destroy
everything useful & back up) &
starve him out
Who rallied to attack Napoleon
from the east in 1813-14? From
East: Austria, Prussia & Russia;
West: Great Britain
How did he bring an end to the
Ancien Regime (the Old Regime)?
spread ideals of French Rev.
What was the goal of the
Economic defeat of GB
What effect did Napoleon have on
the political power of the Church?
greatly diminished it because of