Transcript Slide 1

International Symposium on Sustainable Cities:
Empowering Local Governments through Capacity Building
and Knowledge Sharing
26-28 September 2013, Incheon, Republic of Korea
Sustaining Progress on the
MDG for Access to Safe
Drinking Water
Dr. Kulwant Singh
Regional Advisor
Urban Basic Services Branch, UN-Habitat
www.unhabitat.org
World Population Growth (in billion)
Urbanization in the world
URBAN POPULATION BY REGION (2005)
More developed
regions
PERCENTAGE GROWTH OF URBAN POPULATION
BY REGION (2005-2020)
More developed regions
7%
29%
Less
developed
regions
Less developed regions
93%
71%
• Today, one in two people on the planet is an urban dweller
• Urbanization is happening mostly in developing countries (93%)
• Cities are growing because of:
- natural increase in urban population (50%)
- reclassification of rural areas as urban areas (25%)
- rural-to-urban migration (25%)
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Worldwide, urban population is growing 20x faster;
57% of world’s population will be in urban areas by 2025
Share of urbanized population over total population
Percentage of
population
urbanized
Regional Character of Urbanization
Urban Population
85
Percent
82
76
74
61
55
54
53
47
42
37
37
29
17
15
World
Africa
Asia
Source: UN
1950
2000
Latin America
and the
Caribbean
2030
More
Developed
Regions
Challenges of Rapid Urbanisation
Need for:
• Adequate shelter for all
• Sustainable urban development needs
sustainable water and sanitation services
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Cities – opportunities
and challenges
•
•
•
•
General wealth
Enhance social Development
Provide employment
Incubators of innovation
and creativity
• Pockets of poverty
• Exclusion and
marginalization
• Environmental degradation
• Decay
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As urbanisation intensifies cities become more important
The slum challenge: past, present, future
38%
Slum Growth
62%
World Urban
Growth
Unprecedented slum growth: 18 million new slum dwellers
per year during 1990-2001
Projected growth: 27 million people a year (2005/20)
Slum growth = 38% of the world’s urban growth
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Urbanisation & Water Challenges
Major water problems:
1. Lack of access to water &
sanitation
2. Increasing water related
disasters such as floods,
droughts, tsunamis,
windstorms, landslides,
water borne diseases &
epidemics
3. Climate variability & change
also affecting water
resources and their
management.
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MDG Targets for Water & Sanitation
• MDGs – Agreed by Global
leaders in 2000
• Target 7c - Halve, by 2015,
the proportion of the
population without access to
improved drinking water
and sanitation facilities
With only 2 more years to go,
there is a need to:
• Review progress,
• Intensify efforts and
• Plan for beyond 2015
Water & Sanitation Coverage – Progress
during 1990-2010
1.8 billion people gained access
to improved sanitation during
the period 1990-2010
Over 2 billion people gained
access to improved drinking water
during the period 1990-2010
PEOPLE WITHOUT IMPROVED
SANITATION
•
An estimated, 2.5 billion people are still without improved sanitation.
•
In South Asia, 41%, or 692 million people still practice open defecation
•
Among the 2.5 billion people in the world, not using improved sanitation facilities,
greatest numbers are in South Asia, but there are also large numbers in East Asia.
•
Between 1990-2010 number of people without improved sanitation has increased
from 531 to 714 million.
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In 2010 63 percent of global population used
improved sanitation facilities
Regional distribution of the 2.5 billion people not using
improved sanitation facilities in 2010, population (million)
More than half of the
2.5 billion people
without improved
sanitation live in
India or China
Four out of 10 people gaining access to improved
sanitation in 1990-2010 live in China and India
PEOPLE WITHOUT IMPROVED SOURCES
OF DRINKING WATER
• More than 780 million people in the world still do not get their drinkingwater from improved sources, almost all of them in developing regions.
• The use of improved sources of drinking-water is high globally, with
89% of the world population and 86% of the people in developing
regions getting their drinking-water from such sources.
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In 2010 89% of global population used improved
water source
Globally 780 million people not using improved sources of drinkingwater in 2010 – Regional Distribution
India, China &
Bangladesh among
Ten countries that
are home to two
thirds of the global
population
without an improved
drinking water source
Almost half of world population gaining access to improved sources
of drinking-water in 1990-2010 live in China and India
Why is safe and sustainable
water supply not available in
some areas?
Is it lack of technology, or knowledge,
or capacity, or education, or funds?
Water & Urbanisation
Strengthened Capacity for
Improved Service Delivery
Advocacy, Awareness
Raising, Education
(HVWSHE)
Issues
Factors
Solution Strategies
TARGET
Governance
Comprehensive City Planning,
Integrated Urban Water and Solid
Waste Management
Sustainable Urban Water
Supply and Improved
Environmental Sanitation in
the World’s Cities
Self sustaining urban
environments; Resource recovery,
Water Demand Management;
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
User/Polluter pay
Principle ($), Innovative
financing
Increase Budgetary
Support
Right Based Approaches,
Reduce Corruption and
Fraud, Community Driven
Transparency
Accountability
Equity
Capacity
Political Will
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Finances and
Investments
Rapidly
Increasing Urban
Growth
Public Awareness
Ethics and Values
Technology
Climate Change
Impacts
Aging, deteriorated
and absent
infrastructure
Sustainable Water Supply :
Institutional Issues
• Urban areas of different sizes need different approaches.
• Trickle-down of national policies and legislation and how these
work at the local level.
• Need for Integrated Water Resource Management.
• Need for Water Demand Management.
• Improved focus on serving the poor – Critical Role of Local
Authorities.
• Community/Local Authority interface needing more attention.
• Clustering of utilities & local authority management.
• Closer synergy between urban infrastructure planners & urban
planners.
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Sustainable Water Supply:
Financial Issues
• Estimated investment towards the MDG targets for water
supply & sanitation: $15 billion per year.
• Need to raise local capital
• Need to build competent, efficient, business-like & service
oriented institutions.
• Covering the cost of operation & maintenance a pre-requisite
for sustainable service provision.
• Bigger role of large & small scale private sector providers &
financiers.
• Flexible policy & legal frameworks for strengthening local
jurisdiction and reducing financial dependence on higher tier
funds.
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Sustainable Water Supply: Other Barriers
Barriers to sustainable access of the poor to water
supply & sanitation in slum areas as well as at relocation
and redeveloped sites:
a) High levels of Non-Revenue and unaccounted for water; and
b) Failure to use community systems for management of water
supply and sanitation assets and systems.
 Development options not responsive to the context.
 Formal large-scale redevelopment initiatives obstruct
participation of the poor and community based organisations.
 Pitfalls in reclassifying the poor (as the poorest of the poor).
 Disparities in the conditions of the poor and slum residents
within medium sized and metropolitan cities, and amongst
countries and regions.
Sustainable Water & Sanitation:
Challenge for the poor

Inadequate water supply to the poor

The poor pay exorbitant rates for access to water
through vendors and tankers.

Technological options like septic tanks in urban
areas not appropriate solutions–both environmentally
and technologically.

Monitoring of access to water supply and sanitation
does not reflect the actual functional access to these
services, but it does influence the commitments for
investment for improving the situation.
Lack of information and data needed for tracking
Water & Sanitation coverage access & City Planning
• Data for Coverage Access
or usage
• Data on Urban Inequities
• Data for decision making
• Incorporating water &
wastewater quality
monitoring
• Information from formal
& informal sources
Water investment requires a holistic approach:
Links between pricing, financing and stakeholders
Recommendations & Policy Options
The principle challenge is not so much in technological
aspects but in soft components, especially:
•
Leadership & commitment
• Need for an appropriate policy environment & legal &
regulatory framework (including local government
financing)
•
•
Capacity development of service providers
Innovative financing mechanisms attractive to potential
investors especially to private sector
Access to Water for All and the Right to Water:
The Backdrop for Action
 Worsening Water and Sanitation in urban areas; due to rapid population
growth and urbanisation :
Year/Parameter
2000
2008
Urban Population
Without Access to
Sanitation (millions)
662
800
Urban Population
Without Access to
Water (millions)
115
135
Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water; 2010 update ( WHO/UNICEF JMP)
 Asia- Global Sanitation “Hot Spot” 72% of people lacking sanitation live
in Asia (largest nos. in Southern Asia, followed by Eastern Asia);
 Sanitation essential for ensuring Access to Water for All.
A Rights Based Target and Action Framework
 2010 General Assembly Resolution- A Landmark: The right to safe and clean
drinking water and sanitation declared a human right that is essential for the full
enjoyment of life and all human rights;

Proposed Target as agreed during Sixth WWF in Marseille : “Universal and
Sustainable Access to Water and Sanitation in all Regions by 2025”


More than mere “Access”:
Sufficient and Safe water: An adequate quantity of safe water supply (acceptable
quality) must be available for personal and domestic uses;

Accessible water and sanitation: Water and sanitation services and facilities
functional and must be within safe physical reach;

Affordable water and sanitation: Water and sanitation must be affordable, without
reducing the individuals or household’s capacity to acquire other essential goods
and services;
•
Water availability, allocation and sustainability: Allocation of water resources must
give priority to essential personal and domestic uses; Water sources must be
protected against degradation and pollution to ensure safe water for present and
future generations;
Common Misconceptions: Right to Water and Sanitation
Misconception
Clarification
The right entitles people to free water
Water and sanitation services need to be
affordable to all; people expected to contribute
financially or otherwise to the extent they can
do so.
The right allows for unlimited use of water
Entitles everyone to sufficient water for
personal and domestic use and is to be realised
in a sustainable manner for present and future
generations.
The right entitles everyone to a household
connection
Water and sanitation facilities need to be
within, or close to households; can comprise
facilities like wells and pit latrines.
The right entitles people to water resources in
other countries
People cannot claim water from other countries.
But international customary law requires such
water courses to be shared equitably with
priority given to human needs.
A country is in violation of the right if not all its
people have access to water and sanitation
The right requires that States take steps to the
maximum of available resources to
progressively realise the right.
Actions: What can Cities Do? Some Examples
Water, Sanitation,
Hygiene Education;
Good Governance
(Pro-poor);
Participatory
Monitoring including
use of e-media
(social/open network)
Planning in
Advance of
growth;
IWRM
Promote
“Closed Loop “
Systems e.g.
Rain
Harvesting,
Waste water
reuse
Water Demand
Management;
Revolving
Funds;
Community
Based Water
and Sanitation
Increasing Costs
Rehabilitation and
Expansion of
infrastructure
Asian Best Examples on WASH systems
Need to replicate them
Cities such as Singapore have shown how water can be effectively
conserved and managed
Asian Best examples on WASH systems
Need to learn from them and replicate them
Pnom Penh has a world class water authority that has received the
Stockholm Industry Water Award 2010
Private sector can be a good partner
Private Sector - a valuable partner
Key to address the problem of global water and sanitation
lies in effective LEADERSHIP and PARTNERSHIP
Source: http://www.lionsclubs.org/EN/our-impact/lions-in-action/lions-in-action-archives/health_wellness_projects/clean-water.php
Lions Clubs have helped bringing clean water to 120 villages in Mali
“Never doubt that a small, highly committed group of individuals can
change the world; indeed it is the only thing that ever has.”
– Margaret Meade
Messages for Local Governments
• Significant Achievements: MDG relating to access to
water has been achieved three years before the end period.
However, most vulnerable sections particularly the
urban poor, women and children are still left out.
• The battle for sanitation is quite long which will need
nearly trebling of the effort by the governments at national
and local levels and enhancement of support by the
international community
• The Right to Water and Sanitation should not be
misconstrued that the right entitles people to free
water, allows them unlimited use of water, entitles
everyone to a household connection and it entitles people to
water resources in other countries.
Sanitation is more than building a toilet :
Five Reasons to Improve Urban Sanitation
• Urban Sanitation is about a chain of services
•
Urban sanitation must be poor-inclusive & implemented
within a citywide framework : To be cost effective, urban
sanitation services must be planned to serve all those who
need them – rich and poor alike.
• Urban sanitation cannot be tackled in isolation : It
requires effective land-use control, good solid waste
management and better drainage system
• Urban sanitation requires a strong enabling environment
Clear policy frameworks, legislation, and standards help ensure
coherence and consistency among stakeholders along the
service chain
• Urban sanitation needs clear accountability: If the
multiple service providers are to perform their essential roles,
day in, day out, they must be held accountable through specific
and effective accountability mechanisms.
Meeting the WATSAN MDGs:
The Way Forward
• Progress in relation to access to basic sanitation in particular is
insufficient to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target to
halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access
to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation. The following are the
major steps to reach the goal:
• Recognize the people’s right to safe drinking water and basic
sanitation as a basic human right and a fundamental aspect of
human security;
• Accord highest priority to water and sanitation in economic
development plans and agendas and to substantially increase
allocation of resources to the water and sanitation sectors so as to
aim at universal access to water and sanitation by 2025, through the
adoption of new and innovative sanitation systems that are not as
water reliant as current methods;
• Improve governance, efficiency, transparency and equity in all
aspects related to the management of urban water, particularly as it
impacts the poor communities the most.
The Way Forward …. Contd.
•
Identification of a community of ‘good practice’ models from the urban centres
in different regions and countries that have made remarkable progress in
providing clean water and wastewater management services in recent years.
•
Think out of the water box: leaders in water supply should make the decisions
on development objectives and the allocation of human and financial
resources to meet them. These decisions should be made or influenced by
leaders in government, the private sector and civil society. Water and
sanitation should be included into national socio-economic development
policies.
•
Mobilize finance: (a) From national budget: This requires political will and
commitment to invest in water and sanitation (b) external finance: create a
conducive environment (institutions, laws & regulation, governance, capacity
development, transparency) to attract private finance and external aid.
•
Decision makers need to recognize the central role of water and sanitation for
sustainable urbanization. Properly managed water resources can ensure
equity and security in water and sanitation.
•
Harnessing local and national experiences to consolidate regional cooperation
and the challenges to be overcome.
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