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Transcript WELCOME TO

Welcome
Introduction to Instructional Design
LECTURE
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT – FKIP
SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY
2014
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The Goal
Describe and use a systematic
approach to the design, development,
and evaluation of instruction.
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Introduction to Instructional
Systems Design (ISD)

A process for designing and developing the right
instruction for the right learners at the right time.

An emerging profession focused on efficient and
effective human performance.

An organized procedure for
– examining human performance problems,
– identifying and applying cost-effective solutions.
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The ISD Process
 Five steps:
– Analysis
– Design
– Development
– Implementation
– Evaluation
– (Revision)
 Systematic and iterative
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Congruence
Objectives
Instruction
Assessment
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Common Characteristics
Instructional Design Models
Ask three questions:
– Where should the learners go?
(Goal)
– How will we help them get there?
(Strategies)
– How will we know they have
arrived? (Evaluation)
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Why ID?
Designing effective instructional materials
is one way of improving the quality of
educational opportunities.
The common concern of instructional
designers is the facilitation of successful
learning experiences from which learners
can demonstrate their newly acquired
knowledge, skills and attitudes.
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Who is an instructional designer ?

Instructional designers use established learning
theories and principles as problem solving
procedures (models) to guide them in making
decisions about their designs.
(Smith and Ragan, 1999)
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Metaphors used for ISD

Instructional design can be regarded
as both a science and an art:
a science because it is rooted in learning theories
which in turn draw their principles from
psychology, sociology, philosophy and
education; and,
an art because the designing of instructional
materials is a highly creative process.
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Intitial Questions sought
answers

Goals: What are the goals of the instruction?
(Where are we going?)
 Instructional strategy: What is the instructional
strategy and the instructional medium?
(How will we get there?)
 Evaluation: How will we evaluate and revise the
instructional materials for future improvement?
(How will we know when we have arrived?)
(Smith and Ragan, 1999)
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Common Features of ID
Models

Improving learning and instruction by following a
systematic approach
 Improving management of instructional design
and development procedures by monitoring and
controlling the functions of the systematic
approach
• Improving evaluation processes (including learner
performance)
 Testing or building learning or instructional theory
by means of theory-based design within a
systematic instructional11model
Basic Elements of ID
1.
2.
3.
4.
Determining the needs of the learners and
examining the learning context and environment
Determining the outcomes of the learning
program or course and formulating the learning
objectives
Developing appropriate and meaningful
assessment criteria and procedures
Establishing the most effective approach(es) to
delivering the instruction
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Basic Elements of ID
5. Testing and evaluating the effectiveness
of the instructional system (both the
instruction itself and the performance of
the learner)
6. Implementing, adjusting and maintaining
the instructional system
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Quality Assurance Model in ISD
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Analysis

Collect all relevant information and then try
to make sense of a variety of deficiencies,
contradictions, inconsistencies and
ambiguities
 Report on
–
–
–
–
Goals
Target Population
Type of Training
Alternatives
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Goals



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What instructional goal is driving this training?
What is the skill gap?
What competencies (knowledge, skills, or
attitudes) will this program deliver?
What factor or evaluation will be used to
measure the level of goal achievement?
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Target Population




Who will be trained?
What is the estimated class size?
How many students in each class will there be
and how long will this training last?
What are the knowledge and skill prerequisites,
if any?
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Type of Training

What types of media do we need?
 What instruments do we need to deliver this
training?
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Alternatives



What will happen if we do not deliver the
training ?
What are the restrictions or limitations for
delivering this program?
What other methods may be used to reach the
goal (include limitations and advantages) ?
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Design: Instructional Strategy

In a design process, instructional strategies
determine the approach an instructor may
take to achieve learning objectives.
–
–
–
–
Organizational Strategies
Delivery Strategies
Management Strategies
Questioning Strategies
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Components of Instructional
Strategies
Organizational
Strategies
Delivery
Strategies
Management
Strategies
• Macro strategies
• Media selection
• Grouping strategies
• Scheduling
• Acqusition of
resources
Scope and sequence
structures
• Micro strategies
Expanded instructional
events
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Expanded instructional events
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Assessment
• Activate Attention
• Establish
instructional purpose
• Arouse interest and
motivation
• Preview lesson
• Recall prior
knowledge
• Process information
• Focus attention
• Employ learning
startegies
• Practice
• Evaluate feedback
• Summarize
and review
• Transfer
knowledge
• Remotivate
and close
• Assess
performance
• Evaluate
feedback and
remediate
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Questioning strategies

Application Questions
 Analytical Questions
 Synthesis Questions
 Interpretive Questions
 Evaluative Questions
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Models of ISD

An ISD model is a human construct to help
us better understand real world systems.
Therefore, instructional designers propose
models to guide us develop and implement
more effective instructional procedures in a
specified span of time.
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Models of ISD

ADDIE: Core elements of ISD
 Dick and Carey Model
 Smith and Ragan Model
 Keller’s ARCS Model for motivation
 Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
 4C/ID Model
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ADDIE

The ADDIE model is the generic process
traditionally used by instructional designers
and training developers. The five phases—
Analysis, Design, Development,
Implementation, and Evaluation—represent
a dynamic, flexible guideline for building
effective training and performance support
tools .
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Iterative Process of ADDIE
Molenda, M. (2003).
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Dick and Carey Model
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Smith and Ragan Model
Source: Smith & Ragan, 1999
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Keller's ARCS Model for
Motivation


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Attention: Gaining and keeping the learner's attention. Keller's strategies for
attention include sensory stimuli (as discussed previously), inquiry arousal
(thought provoking questions), and variability (variance in exercises and use of
media).
Relevance: The training program should answer the critical question, "What's
in it for me?" Benefits should be clearly stated.
Confidence: The confidence aspect of the ARCS model is required so that
students feel that they should put a good faith effort into the program. If they
think they are incapable of achieving the objectives or that it will take too
much time or effort, their motivation will decrease. In technology-based
training programs, students should be given estimates of the time required to
complete lessons or a measure of their progress through the program.
Satisfaction: Learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from
the learning experience. This can be in the form of entertainment or a sense of
achievement. Other forms of external rewards would include praise from a
supervisor, a raise, or a promotion. Ultimately, though, the best way for
learners to achieve satisfaction is for them to find their new skills immediately
useful and beneficial on their job.
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Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory

Step 1. Decompose the content into Concepts, Principles
and Procedures
 Step 2. Sequence them according to their level of difficulty
at macro level
 Step 3. Sequence them according to their level of difficulty
at micro level
 Step 4. Provide comprehensive summaries
 Step 5. Provide opportunities for students to integrate new
information with their schema (i.e., use analogies,
mnemonics, diagrams, or concept maps).
 Step 6. Use encouragement verbs to motivate students’
efforts.
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4C/ID Model
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References

Keller, J. (1987). An application of the ARCS model of motivational design. In
C.M.Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected
theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Kemp, J; G. Morrison & S. M. Ross. (1996). Desinging effective instruction.
Prentice Hall. New Jersey
 Merrill, D. (2002). First Principles of Instruction, ETR&D, 50(3), pp. 43-59
 Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive addie model. Performance improvement,
42(5), 34.
 Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence
decisions. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New
Paradigm of Instructional Theory. (Volume II). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
 Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T. J. (1999). Instructional Design. 2nd edition.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill.
 van Merriënboer, J.J.G (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four
component instructional design model for technical training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Educational Technology Publications
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The Systematic Design of
Instruction
The Dick & Carey Model
Rev ise
Instruction
Conduct
Instructional
Analy sis
Assessing
Needs to
Identif y
Goal(s)
Write
Perf ormance
Objectiv es
Analy ze
Learners
and
Contexts
Dev elop
Assessment
Instruments
Dev elop
Instructional
Strategy
Dev elop and
Select
Instructional
Materials
Design and
Conduct
Formativ e
Ev aluation
of
Instruction
Design and
Conduct
Summativ e
Ev aluation
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End of slides
questions?
If not, end of lecture
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