Scaffolded Rough and Tumble Play

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Transcript Scaffolded Rough and Tumble Play

‘Scaffolded’ Rough-andTumble Play
Operationalizing the Foundations for
Self-Determination Model
Keith W. Allred, Ph.D.
DEC Presentation ©
October 9, 2014
Session Outcomes:
• Examine the 3 pre-cursors to Self-Det. in the ‘Foundations’
Model while focusing on infants/toddlers with Dev. Delay (DD)
• Explore fathers role in the Attachment Process, as it pertains to
Self-Determination (SD)
• Identify positive outcomes associated with father-child ‘rough &
tumble’ play [RTP] in the context of the developmental process
of Self-Det.
• Address 2 strategies for developing IFSP goals addressing SD that
target fathers{father figures} involvement in ‘scaffolded’ RTP
and Developmental Delay
• “Building a foundation for self-determination that
is coordinated across early childhood settings as
well as the home will have optimal results for
children with identified disabilities, . . .
(Palmer et al, 2012)
Critical Components
• Opportunity for Choice-Making and Problem
• Self-regulation
• Engagement
Note: Figure 1. Foundations for Self-Determination Model. --Palmer,
Summers, Brotherson, Erwin, Maude, et al.., (2013)
Opportunity for Choice-making
& Problem Solving
• Adult perceptions re: limited capacity of young children with DD have
often restricted choice-making
• Providing young children ‘choice-making’ opportunities provides them
with some ownership of daily activities/routines & is beginning of
independence & autonomous decision making ( McCormick et al.,
• Choice-making in young children influences their ability to solve
problems, acquire confidence, & explore environment (Erwin et al,
• Ability to self-regulate is ‘cornerstone’ of EC development
(Gillespie & Seibel, 2006; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000)
• Key component of sensory-processing concerns (Dunn, 2010)
• Self- Reg. is defined as way in which young children “process &
respond to input & stimuli received from their environment
through the management or control over their own emotions,
behavior, and attention” (Palmer et al., 2013)
• Caregiver sensitivity is essential to facilitate development of
engagement (de Krui, McWilliams, Ridley, & Wakely (2000)
• Developmental sequence of progressively more sophisticated
levels of engagement (McWilliams & Casey, 2008)
• Adults are gatekeepers to opportunities for infants/toddlers to
develop engagement skills
• Engagement is an outcome of being self-regulated
Bioecological Model
of Human Development
• Bronfenbrenner
Proximal processes are
key to development & growth
Proximal processes
First things first
• Mother-infant bond, ATTACHMENT,
foundational to social-emotional development
• Maternal sensitivity irreplaceable
• Emotional availability irreplaceable
Proximal Processes con’t
• Increasing evidence that there are differences
between mother-child and father-child
• Three plus decades (1975-2014) of research
supporting this notion
Recent “Pioneering” scholarship
and research
• Activation Relationship Theory (2004)
• Daniel Paquette
• Posits that a father provides a unique contribution to a
child’s social-emotional development as a result of a
distinct attachment or bond with infant/toddler
Fathers and Attachment
• “It is postulated, in particular, that father-child rough-and-tumble play
encourages obedience and the development of competition skills in
children,” (Paquette, 2004, p. 193)
• “… it is quite possible that father-child attachment is developed primarily
through physical play,” (Paquette, p. 203).
• “… father-child activation through play may actually be dependent on
mother-child attachment…” (Paquette, p. 204).
Fathers and Attachment, cont.
• “From this perspective, children who have developed a secure attachment to
their mothers would tend to benefit more from father-child play,” (Paquette,
2004, p. 204).
• “… quality father-child RTP should include at least two characteristics: it
should be highly pleasurable for the child, and should involve the use of
moderate control on the father’s part,” (Paquette, p. 208).
Father-Child Attachment:
General Observations
• Fathers provide more excitatory, destabilising, and challenging
• ‘Activative’ fathering behaviors:
• Engage children’s self-regulatory systems
• Encourage risk-taking
• Provide firm limits on behavior
• Encourages impulse control
• Facilitates problem-solving skills
Crucial Context for Development of
Father-Child Activation Relationship
• Posited that infants develop attachment to fathers
through play
• Rough and Tumble Play (RTP) particularly
• RTP includes “vigorous behaviors such as wrestling,
grappling, kicking & tumbling that would appear to be
aggressive except for the playful context” (Pellegrini &
Smith, 1989, p. 579)
Father-Child RTP
Precursor play begins by 12 months
Fully emerges by 24 months
Frequency/duration increases with age
Boys engaged more than girls
Peaks around age 4
Child temperament mediates RTP
Culture influences nature of RTP
High Quality Father-Child RTP
Father attentive & playful—It’s fun!
Father attuned to child’s abilities & interests
Father motivates child to re-engage—It’s engaging!
Father enjoys child’s attempts to win
Father balances winning & losing
Father animated & expressive
Embodies principle of “mutual enjoyment”
RTP & Parenting Style(s)
Baumrind & others
• 3 general styles of parenting
• Authoritarian
• Permissive
• Authoritative
• Corresponds with warmth, sensitivity, and control
exhibited in high-quality RTP
Activative Fathering
• Three types of activation categories
• Under-activated
• Limited exploration, risk-taking by child
• Activated
• Confident exploration, but child follows limits
• Over-activated
• Explore w/o caution, child does not follow limits
Empirical evidence Regarding
Activative fathering
• Interactions between culture (individualistic vs. collectivistic), child
temperament, & RTP
• Overprotective parenting (over-activative fathering) may lead to less
socially adept & secure children
• Intrusiveness & restrictiveness should be done judiciously
• Difficult to tease out effects of activative fathering from authoritative
• Warmth, responsiveness, & control contribute to social & cognitive
competence in children
Evidence con’t
• Authoritative fathering associated with decreased
internalizing & externalizing behaviors in children
• The more optimally activated boys are in toddlerhood the
more engaged they are in RTP at age 3
• Earlier fathers are engaged in childcare the longer they stay
engaged with child over time
• Evidence that roles of mothers & fathers are different
• Fathers (father figures) serve as a ‘social bridge’ between family environment
& extra-familial environments
• Father (father figure) & RTP appear to contribute to develop of precursors
of Self-Det.; namely, (1) choice-making & problem solving, (2) engagement,
and (3) self-regulation
• Mothers, and by extension, ECE professionals, typically remain ‘gatekeepers’
in defining father’s roles with young children
Toward relevant IFSP Goals
• Genogram: Is father present/accessible? Other father
figures available?
• Look/identify appropriate father figure(s) (older siblings,
uncles, grandfathers, etc.) that are in the infant/toddler’s
natural settings
• Ask more questions regarding when & how these father
figures are interacting with infant/toddler
Relevant IFSP Goals con’t
• Depending upon family’s culture, be proactive in describing various role(s) father [figure]
can ‘assume’ with infant/toddler
Teach family members (especially father/figure) about various types of ‘play,’ based upon
developmental level of child
Teach family members about the different ‘levels’ of engagement and how to move from
one level of engagement to another by modeling and “scaffolding” for fathers
Reflect & identify whether you and/or other IFSP team members have implicit biases
regarding ‘Rough & Tumble’ play
Reflect & identify whether you and/or other IFSP team members have implicit biases
regarding ‘competence’ of father to carry out various roles
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