Beginning Greek for Bible Study

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Transcript Beginning Greek for Bible Study

evgw. to. :Alfa
Beginning Greek for
Bible Study
Class #2
Review of English Grammar
kai. to. +W=
Exegetical Example
to.n mh. gno,nta a`marti,an u`pe.r h`mw/n a`marti,an
evpoi,hsen( i[na h`mei/j genw,meqa dikaiosu,nh qeou/ evn
auvtw/|Å
2 Cor. 5:21 – For He made Him who knew
no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we
might become the righteousness of God in
Him.
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu
a
b
g
d
e
z
h
q
i
k
l
m
a
b
g
d
e
z
e
th
i
k
l
m
Father
Bible
gone
dog
met
daze
obey
thing
intrigue
kitchen
law
mother
Nu
Xi
Omicron
Pi
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega
n
x
o
p
r
s-j
t
u
f
c
y
w
n
x
o
p
r
s
t
u
ph
ch
ps
o
new
axiom
not
peach
rod
study
talk
oops
phone
loch
lips
tone
Nouns - Overview
Case
Number
Gender
Declension
English Cases
The boy hit his ball
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The boy – Subjective case
The ball – Objective case
His – Possessive case
Word order is usually key in identifying
English cases
English Cases
Case
Function
Example
Subjective
subject
He took my bat
Possessive
possession
He took my bat
Objective
direct object
He took my bat
Gender Inflection
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Subjective
singular
he
she
it
Possessive
singular
his
her
its
Objective
singular
him
her
it
Subjective plural
they
they
they
Possessive
plural
their
their
their
Objective plural
them
them
them
English Number & Gender
Number refers to a word being either singular or
plural. In English, sometimes this is
accomplished by adding an “s” to the end of the
word. Other times, the form changes (“man”
becomes “men”).
Gender refers to a word as being either
masculine, feminine, or neuter.



Most English nouns do not have gender.
However, most English pronouns do.
Sometimes, we assign “natural” gender to words.
English Grammar Terms
“Bob threw his green Greek book at the
weird teacher.”
Noun – a word that stands for someone or
something (Bob, book, teacher)
Adjective – a word that modifies a noun or
pronoun (green, Greek, weird)
Preposition – a word that shows the
relationship between two other words (at)
English Grammar Terms
Declension – a “pattern” of how words
change to reflect their function

Plural
Adding “s”


Boy – Boys
Girl – Girls
Changing a vowel


Man – Men
Woman – Women
Drop the “y,” add “ies”



Family – families
Story – stories
Baby - babies
Verbs - Overview
A verb is a word that describes an action
or state of being:





Hit
Drive
Study
Think
Be – am, is, was
Verbs - Overview
Person
Number
Tense
Voice
Aspect
Mood
Verbs - Person
There are three “persons” – first, second,
and third
First person – the person speaking (“I,”
“we”)
Second person – the person being spoken
to (“you,” “ya’ll”)
Third person – everything else (“he,” “she,”
“it,” “they,” “book,” “coffee,” etc.)
Verbs - Person
She is a nice person.
I am a believer.
He is a baseball player.
This sweet tea is refreshing.
You are a student.
Ya’ll are from Texas.
Verbs - Number
In the English third person, the verb is
inflected by adding the letter “s” to the end
of the verb.



I hit the ball.
You hit the ball.
He hits the ball.
Verbs - Agreement
A verb must “agree” with its subject in
person and number.






The class learn Greek.
The class learns Greek.
I teaches the class.
I teach the class.
There is no tests in Greek class.
There are no tests in Greek class.
Verbs - Tense
The tense of a verb refers to the TIME
when the action of the verb takes place
There are three main tenses in English:



Present – I study
Past – I studied
Past Participle – I studied
Verbs - Tense
Tense
“to swim”
“to eat”
“to walk”
“to read”
Present
Swim
eat
walk
read
Past
swam
ate
walked
read
Past
participle
swum
eaten
walked
read
Verbs - Voice
Voice refers to the relationship between
the verb and its subject. A verb is either
active or passive.


Active – the subject is doing the action –
David hit the ball, She studied Greek
Passive – the subject is receiving the action –
He was hit by the ball – She was justified by
Christ
Verbs - Aspect
Aspect refers to the type of action that a
verb describes



Continuous – ongoing process - “I am
watching TV.”
Perfect – completed action with present
consequences – “I have studied diligently.”
Undefined – says nothing other than that an
action occurred – “I enjoy Greek.”
Don’t confuse tense with aspect.
Verbs - Aspect
Tense
Continuous
Perfect
undefined
Present I am calling
I call
active
Present
I am being
I am called
passive
called
Past active
I was
I have
I called
calling
called
Past
I was being
I have
I was
passive
called
been called
called
Verbs – Mood
Mood refers to a verb’s relationship to
reality



Indicative – statement of fact or reality.
Subjunctive – statement about what might
happen.
Imperative - something that is commanded.
Clauses & Phrases
A clause is a group of related words that
includes a subject and verb.


After Greek class, I am going home.
When I get home, I am going to bed.
A phrase is a group of words that does not
have a subject or indicative verb.


After Greek class, I am going home.
Because of the weather, I stayed home.
Dependent (Subordinate)
Clauses
A dependent (or subordinate) clause is a
clause that cannot grammatically stand on
its own. It does not make sense by itself.


When I get home
Because of the weather
An independent clause can stand on its
own.



I am going home
I am going to bed
I am studying Greek
Clauses
Recognizing an independent clause from a
dependent clause is ESSENTIAL for
understanding the Bible.
The main point of a biblical text is usually
in an independent clause, not a dependent
clause.
Clauses – Col. 1:28-29
28 - We proclaim Him, admonishing every
man and teaching every man with all
wisdom, so that we may present every
man complete in Christ.
29 - For this purpose also I labor, striving
according to His power, which mightily
works within me.
Clauses – Col. 1:28-29
We proclaim Him
admonishing every man
and teaching every man with all
wisdom
so that we may present every man
complete in Christ.
For this purpose also I labor
striving according to His power,
which mightily works within me.
Clauses – 1 Peter 1:3-5
3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy
has caused us to be born again to a living hope
through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the
dead,
4 - to obtain an inheritance which is
imperishable and undefiled and will not fade
away, reserved in heaven for you,
5 - who are protected by the power of God
through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed
in the last time.
Conjunctions
Conjunctions are words that connect
words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Coordinating – connect independent clauses
(and, but, for, or, so, yet)
The word was with God and the word was God.
Be angry but do not sin.

Subordinate – begin a dependent clause and
often link it to an independent clause
(because, since, if, when, where)
I am studying because I want to do well.
If we ask anything according to his will, He hears
us.
Types of Clauses
Relative – clauses that start with a relative
pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, that)


“the rest of my fellow workers, whose names
are in the book of life” (Phil. 4:3)
"There is another who testifies of Me, and I
know that the testimony which He gives about
Me is true.” (John 5:32)
Types of Phrases
Prepositional Phrase – start with a
preposition


“The Greek book is under the table.”
“I do not receive glory from men” (John 5:41)
Participial Phrase – begin with a participle
(a verb ending in “ing”)


After doing my Greek homework, I went to
bed.
“You do not have His word abiding in you”
(John 5:38)
Function of Phrases
Phrases can act as parts of speech



Noun – Whoever is with me is not against me.
Adjectival – He who is not for us is against us.
Adverbial – Drive with care.
Examples
The Light shines in the darkness, and the
darkness did not comprehend it.
If we confess our sins, He is faithful and
righteous to forgive us our sins and to
cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
Phrasing – A Bible Study
Method
Introduction to Phrasing
Phrasing is a way of visually dividing up a
section of Scripture in order to see the
author’s flow of thought and thus
understand the passage.
Phrasing is different than sentence
diagramming and is generally more useful
in Bible study.
*****In this section, the author uses the
term “phrase” in a broader way than in
chapter 7. Don’t be confused!
Overview of Phrasing
Step 1 – Find the beginning and end of the
passage.
Step 2 - Identify the sections.
Step 3 – Identify the phrases.
Step 4 – Identify the main phrase(s) and
modifying phrases.
Step 5 – Visually lay out the passage in a
way that clearly shows the relationships of
the phrases.
Step 1 – Identify the beginning
and end of a passage
HOW?
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Look for major shifts in topics
Look for shifts in audience
Look for shifts from description to prescription
Look for changes in key words and themes
Look for transitional phrases (“the next day,” “after
this,” “therefore”)
Check your conclusions with a good commentary or
study Bible.
Remember that the chapter and paragraph divisions
are not inspired, but are helpful and usually correct in
identifying major divisions.
Step 1 – Identify the beginning
and end of a passage
1 Cor 1:1-10
1 Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our
brother,
2 To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ
Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord
Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:
3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
4 I thank my God always concerning you for the grace of God which was given you in
Christ Jesus,
5 that in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge,
6 even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you,
7 so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord
Jesus Christ,
8 who will also confirm you to the end, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
9 God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus
Christ our Lord.
10 Now I exhort you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree
and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the
same mind and in the same judgment.
Step 1 – Identify the beginning
and end of a passage
Label? - Salutation
Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and
Sosthenes our brother,
2 To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been
sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every
place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:
3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus
Christ.
1
Step 2 – Identify the sections
Read and re-read the passage until the
natural “breaks” are identified.
Label the sections with the main point of
the section
Step 2 – Identify the sections
1
2
3
Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of
God, and Sosthenes our brother,
To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who
have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling,
with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord
Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the
Lord Jesus Christ.
Step 2 – Identify the sections
AUTHOR
(1) Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God,
and Sosthenes our brother,
RECIPIENTS
(2) To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have
been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in
every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord
and ours:
GREETING
(3) Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord
Jesus Christ.
Step 3 – Identify the phrases
“A phrase is an assertion, a proposition,
something that means something” (63).
A phrase is more than just one word.
Step 3 – Identify the phrases
AUTHOR
Paul
called as an apostle of Jesus Christ
by the will of God
and Sosthenes our brother,
RECIPIENTS
To the church of God
which is at Corinth
to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus
saints by calling
with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus
Christ, their Lord and ours:
GREETING
(3) Grace to you and peace
from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Step 4/5 – Identify the main phrase(s)
and modifying phrases – lay out
visually
AUTHOR
Paul
called as an apostle of Jesus Christ
by the will of God
and Sosthenes our brother,
RECIPIENTS
To the church of God
=
which is at Corinth
to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus
saints by calling
with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord
Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:
GREETING
Grace to you and peace
from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Homework
Read chapters 9-13
Do the exercises at the end of chapter 8
Practice identifying parts of speech in your
Bible
Keep working on the alphabet!