Global Studies Review

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Transcript Global Studies Review

Global Studies Review
3200 B.C.-1700’s
Beginnings of Civilization
• Geography- study of humans and their interaction with
the environment. Themes:
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Location (describes where something is)
Place (features that make site unique)
Regions (areas that share commons characteristics)
Movement (looks at how + why people + things move)
Human Environment Interaction
• Culture- a groups knowledge, beliefs, values and
customs
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Cultural Diffusion-spread of ideas from one society to
another.
Paleolithic Era
• 2.5 million B.C.-8000 B.C.
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hunting
gathering wild game
edible plants
living in nomadic groups
Old Stone Age
Neolithic Era
• 8000 B.C.- 3000 B.C.
• farming crops
• domestication of
animals
• living in settlements and
villages
• New Stone Age
• Rise of cities and
civilizations
Features of a Civilization
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Cities
Government
Writing
Religion
Public Works
Job Specialization
Art & Architecture
Social Classes
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Mesopotamia
Babylonians
Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
present day Iraq
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Mesopotamia
ancient Sumer
fertile crescent
Polytheistic
Ziggurats
Cuneiform
Wheel
Sail
plow
• Babylonians
• advanced knowledge in
astronomy
• Hanging Gardens
• Hammurabi’s code (code
of laws “eye for an eye”)
Nile River
Egyptians
Nile River
Present day Egypt
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Polytheistic (many gods)
pharoah (god/king)
Hieroglyphics
Papyrus
Pyramids
Mumification (Book of the Dead)
Calendar (based on floods of Nile)
Indus and Ganges Rivers
Indus and Ganges Rivers
Indus-Pakistan
• Mohenjo Daro and
Harappa Valley
• grid like pattern for city
• plumbing
• Organized government
Ganges-India
• Aryans
– created caste system
• Based on occupation
– beginnings of Hinduism
– (Vedas)
– River sacred to Hindus
Huang He River
Ancient Chinese Civilization
Huang He and Yangtze Rivers
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China
Shang Dynasty (1766 BC-1100BC)
Mandate of Heaven- right to rule
dynastic cycle-process of rule
silk-bronze
coin money
Ancestor Worship
Zhou Dynasty (1100 BC-221BC)
Other Civilizations
Phoenicians
Hittites
Persians
• Phoenicians (1500-300 BCE)
– Lebanon
– created alphabet
– proficient sailors
Other
Important
Civilizations
• Hittites (1750-1180BCE)
– Asia Minor
– extracted iron from ore-able to create stronger weapons.
• Persians (550-330 BCE)
– fertile crescent-present day Iran
– barter economy
• zoroastrianism (religion)
• Hebrews
– Israel
– created monotheistic religion Judaism
Empires
• A collection of nations or people ruled
by a single authority usually a monarch,
but other systems of gov’t too
Empires of
CHINA
1. Qin (221 BC-206 BC)
– Shi Huang Di
– Legalism (harsh)
– Great Wall
2. Han (206 BC-220AD)
– Gao Zu began Empire
– Confucious gov’t
• Civil Service Exam
• Filial Piety
– Emperor Wudi
• Growth of Trade (Silk Road)
– Technology-Paper
– Medicine-Anestetics
3. Sui (589-618 AD)
Grand Canal (1,000 ft links N-S
China)
4. Tang(618-907 AD)
– age of Buddhism
– Footbinding
– woodblock printing
– Gunpowder
– Paper Money
– Magnetic compass
5. Song (960-1279 AD)
– Moveable type
– Porcelain
Shi Huang Di
More Asian
Empires
• Mongols
– Ghengis Khan(1206-1227)
– conquered lands throughout China
– Golden Horde (Tartars)
• Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia
– Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
• Kublai Khan (grandson)
– Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road)
– Marco Polo
• Korea (name from Koryo Dynasty)
– -cultural bridge btwn. China and Japan
– Hermit Kingdom
– Choson Dynasty
India
• Maurya Empire (320 -185 BC)
– Chandragupta
• United India
• Strong government
• Organized bureaucracy
– Ashoka
• Expanded empire
• Promoted Buddhism
• Public works (roads + wells for travellers)
• Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)
– Chandra
• Reunited northern India
• Golden Age (peace, wealth, advancements)
• Promoted Hinduism
Greece before Greece
Minoans
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Crete
3,000BCE-1450 BCE
Knossus
King Minos-Labyrinth
Snake Goddess
Trade
Linear A
Arthur Evans
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Mycenaeans
2200 BCE
Heinrich Schliemann
Linean B
Trojan War
Homer
Dark Ages
Ancient Greece (1750 B.C. -133 B.C.)
• Mediterranean Sea
– Archipelago
• Main City States
– Sparta
• military-discipline
– Athens
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Democracy
Education
Intellectualism
Art
Drama
Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)
A not so Greek
• Alexander the Great (359 BC- 326 BC)
– not a “real greek”
– conquered Greece, Persia, northern India,and
Egypt
– Accomplishments
• Hellenistic civilization (Greek+Persian+Egyptian+Indian)
• CULTURAL DIFFUSSION
Rome (509 B.C.-476 A.D.)
• Central location helped create vast empire.
• 756 BC Etruscans and Latiums established city of Rome: rule by Tyrants
• Republic 509 B.C.-31 B.C.
– consuls,patricians,plebians controlled Roman affairs.
– Twelve Tables (civil law)
– Punic Wars-against Carthage, 3 wars, Hannibal, Rome won)
• Julius Caesar
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great general
Dictator
popular for reforms
killed by rivals (“et tu Brute”)
• Empire 31 B.C.-476 A.D. Octavious/Augustus
– Pax Romana (31B.C.-180A.D.)
• Roman Peace + stable gov’t
Roman Achievements
• Architecture
– emphasis on grandeur
• Engineering
– system of roads, bridges, harbors, and
aqueducts.
• Science
– Ptolemy (earth center of universe)
– Pliny the Elder(wrote many books on different
topics.
Roman Achievements
• Roman Law
– Applied to all people-created stability-5
basic principles
• People equal under the law
• Accused can face accusers
• Decisions based on fairness
• Person is presumed innocent
• Guilt must be clearly established
Fall of Rome
• Military Causes
– Invasions from north
– army lacked training and
discipline
– hired mercenaries
– Huns pushed Goths over
Empire’s boundaries
• Economic Causes
– heavy taxes
– middle class disappears
– farmers left land-used
slave labor
• Political Causes
– Gov’t too strict
– Curruption
– Empire divided.
• Social Causes
– population decline
(disease and famine)
– people became
selfish and lazy
Byzantine Empire
395-1453 CE
• Extension of Roman Empire
– (Greco-Roman heritage)
• Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern
Europe.
• Constantinople
– capital of Eastern Empire
– Protected by water + walls
– Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)
• Justinian and Theodora (527-565)
– code of laws
– Hagia Sophia
– Tried to reunite east +west failed due to plague
• Orthodox Christianity
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Middle East
Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
Cultural diffusion-> Trade
Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans
Islam
Abassid Empire 740s-900s)
– Shiite muslims
– Trade increased
• Safavid Empire (1500-1722)
– Persian muslims (shiite)
• Ottoman Empire (1300s-1919)
– Controlled former area called Byzantine/Constantinople
• Shiite vs Sunni
– Sunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should
be good person
– Shiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent of Muhammad
Africa
• Sahara desert-largest world barrier
• Sahel-south of Sahara undergoing
desertification
• Savanna-grasslands-supports farming and
herding
• Animism-early religion-spirits present in
natural objects.
• Oral history (griots)
• Bantu Migrations (900s BCE)
– Migrations into South Africa
East Africa
• Influenced by Monsoons
• Kush (Nubia)
• Auxum (100-600 CE)
– Ethiopia
– Christian
– Traded w/ coins
• Ivory
• Gold
• People
• Swahili
– Combination of Bantu +
Arabic language
West Africa
• Land of Gold
• Ghana (800s-1076 CE)
– Traded gold + salt
• Mali (1230s-1433 CE)
– Sundiata (ruler + Epic
story)
– Mansa Musa (1307)
• Devout Muslim: hajj =
cultural diffussion
• Timbuktu: center fro
education, religion, culture
– Ibn Battuta: wrote about
travels in Africa
• Songhai (1460s)
– Sunni Ali-great military
leader
– Askia Muhammad-Golden
Age
Latin American Empires
• Maya (300-900 CE)
– Yucatan Peninsula/Mexico
– advancements in astronomy
– Human Sacrifice
• Aztec (1200-1520 CE)
– Central Mexico
– conquered by Spanish (Cortes)
– Human Sacrifice
• Incas(1438-1525 CE)
– Andes mts./Peru
– conquered by Spanish (Pizzaro)
– road system + terrace farming
• All were polytheistic, highly complex,and wellorganized
Empire of Japan
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Archipelago
Ring of Fire
borrowed culture from China
terrace farming
Shintoism (religion)
Feudalism-land in exchange for military
Bushido (code of conduct for samurai)
Europe
• Dark Ages (476 AD -800)
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End of Roman Rule in western Europe
Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings)
no books
no learning/education
• Preserved by monks and muslims
– no government
– no common language
– no unity
Europe: Middle Ages (8001300)
• 3 C’s (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne)
• Feudalism
– fiefdom= system of loyalties
– Manorialism-self sufficient estate
– Chivalry-code of conduct
• Church-most powerful institution
– political-economic-social organization
– Holy Roman Empire
Europe Middle Ages
• Agricultural Revolution (after 900)
– New inventions (harness for horses,3 field system,
moldboard plow)
– More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs =towns
• Crusades-Holy Wars (1095- 1270) resulted in increased:
– Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge
• Commercial Revolution(1500s)
– New business practices (checks, banks)
– Capital = $ exchanged instead of bartering
– end of feudalism
– Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)
• 1348 Bubonic Plague=trade declinedchurch lost power-1/3 population died
• Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453
– War between France and Britain over land
• Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648
– Between German Princes and Holy Roman
Empire over religion
– Treaty of Westphalia brought peace
• Rebirth of Classics
– Greek and Roman
– Golden Age
• Begins in Italy b/c of:
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Renaissance (13001650)
Crusades
urban centers
wealthy merchants
humanism= focus on human achievements not just religion
Art focus=realism
Artists:
• Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous
– Writers:
• Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers
should do anything to gain and keep power.
• Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase,
vernacular, spread of ideas.
Europe->Reformation (1517)
• Martin Luther-1517
– 95 Theses
– upset over selling indulgences.
• Henry VIII (1491-1547)
– challenged Pope over divorce issue
– Anglican church established (1534)
• John Calvin (1541-1564)
– predestination-born sinners
– Huguenots (French Calvinists)
• John Knox-Presbytarianism in Scotland (1510-1572)
• Counter Reformation
– Council of Trent (end abuses in Church)1545-1663
– Inquisition (Catholics on trial)
– Jesuits (remember practices of Jesus)
Europe:
Exploration
(1400-1700)
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Search fo SPICES
God-Gold-Glory
Advances in sailing
Columbus
Magellan
Da Gama
Conquistadores
– Cortes (Aztecs)
– Pizzaro (Incas)
• Destroyed Populations
– Superior Technology
– Disease
– Slavery
• Columbian Exchange
– Ideas, animals, plants
• Mercantilism
– Power=wealth
– Take raw materials
produce + sell exports
• Encomienda System
– plantations
– Class system
Europe: Absolute Monarchs(1500• Spain
1800)
– Isabella and Ferdinand
• France (Bourbons)
– ”Sun King”-Louis XIV
– Built Versailles Palace
• Russia (Romanov)
– Ivans’-> good and bad
– Peter the Great
• Westernization
• expansion
– Catherine the Great
• modernization
• expansion
• Prussia (Hohenzollerns)
– Frederick II (the Great)
– military hero
• Inquisition
– Phillip II
• Armada defeated by England
• England (limited monarchy)
– Magna Carta (1215 King John)
– Henry VIII (split with Pope)
– Elizabeth I
• war w/Spain + religious toleration
– Oliver Cromwell
• civil war/resentment
– William and Mary
• Glorious Revolution-English Bill of
Rights 1689 limited power
• Austria-Hapsberg family
– Maria Theresa (Holy Roman
Empire, very powerful)
Scientific Revolution
• 1543
• Europe
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Continuing study of ancient ideas
Geocentric (Church) vs Heliocentric (Copernicus)
Development of scientific method
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People question Church (main authority)
Beginnings of modern science
Belief in progress & power of reason
New view of universe
Important Scientific Thinkers
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Copernicus
Brahe
Kepler
Galileo
Newton
Boyle
Bacon
Descartes
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Lavoisier
Leeuwnhoek
Linnaes
Harvey
Hooke
Vesalius
Enlightenment: 1600s -1700s
Philosophers used reason to find the truth, influenced
by the Scientific Revolution, promoted want for
independence
• People:
– Thomas Hobbes: people are bad, gov’t = order
– John Locke: natural rights
– Montesquieu: separation of powers
– Rousseau: born good, gov’t = protection
– Voltaire: against slavery
– Diderot: Encyclopedie
– Wollstonecraft & Smith: don’t forget the ladies
– Smith: Laissez Faire (economy)
• Influenced Revolution around the world
Revolution
• The overthrow or replacement of a
government or political system.
American Revolution
• 1776-1783
• Where: North America (13 colonies)
• Cause:
– British Colony
– Mercantilism
– “No taxation w/out representation”
– Influenced by Enlightenment (Locke &
Montesquieu)
• Effects:
– United States of America
French Revolution & Napoleon
• 1789-1815
• France
• Cause:
– 3 Estates (3rd=high taxes + few rights)
– Influenced by Enlightenment & American Revolution
– 1789 3rd estate declares itself National Assembly;
Bastille stormed, Declaration of Rights of Man, “Liberty,
Equality, Fraternity”
– Effects
– Reign of Terror-Robespierre-guillotine
– Napoleon (1804-1814) many changes, expensive,
disaster in Russia (weather)
– Congress of Vienna-restore balance of power
Latin American Independence
• 1791-1835
• Central + South America
• Cause:
– Nationalism-influenced by American and French
Revolution.
• Effects:
– L’Ouverture (Haiti)
– Bolivar (Liberator of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru,
Bolivia)
– San Martin (Argentina)
– Hidalgo & Morelos & O’Higgins (Mexico)
– Lack of unity:Andes Mts & Amazon rain forest
– Economic instability = Reliance on single crop economy
Industrial Revolution
• 1750-1850
• Where:
– Britain-natural resources, harbor, navy, economic + political stability
• Cause:
– Agricultural Rev-new inventions = food=People
– New Inventions=steam power, cottage-factories, mass production
– Urbanization
• Effects:
– Poor Working conditions-hours, pay, dangerous, child labor
– Middle Class
– Unions
• People & Ideas: Adam Smith (Laissez Faire), Charles Darwin
(evolution, natural selection), Utopia (perfect society), Karl Marx
(Communist Manifesto, workers unite and share equally-classless
society)
Russian Revolution (1917)
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Cause: cruel czars, losses in war, poverty
1905 (Bloody Sunday-marchers killed)
March 1917 czar Nicholas abdicates
Bolsheviks (Communists/Reds) take over”peace,land & bread”.
• Lenin leads until 1924-USSR-NEP
• Stalin-totalitarian rule-Russification, 5 year
plans, collective farms, secret police, forced
famine, Great Purge, forced exiles, murders,
millions killed died 1953
Chinese Revolution
• 1930s-1940s
• Cause: Nationalists (Guomindang
w/leader Jiang Jeishi) vs. Communists
(Mao Zedong)
• 1949 Communists were victorious
– Mao Zedong
– Great Leap Forward
– Cultural Revolution “Little Red Book”
Imperialism: domination by one country of the
political, economic or cultural life of another
region /country
1800-1914
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• Cause:
– resources, land + labor
• Effects:
– Africa
• lack of unity-not free until 1960s-boundary wars.
– Americas
• Lead to USA policing region
– India
• Sepoy Rebellion-rid foreigners-lost
– China
• Opium Wars-British won, Boxer Rebellion -rid foreigners-lost
– Japan
• Meiji Restoration-modernize
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cultural diffusion
nationalism (#1)
destruction of traditional societies
improved standards of living
cause of WW I
Nationalism: pride in one’s country,
want of self determination
• Germany: 1871 Otto Von Bismarck
• Italy 1871: Guiseppe Garibaldi, Guiseppe Mazzini
• Austria: 1869 Dual Monarchy becomes AustriaHungary
• Turkey 1917 Kemal Ataturk
• Israel: 1949 Balfour Declaration, Zionism
• India:1948 Mohandas Gandhi
• Africa: 1910-1079 Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela
• Iran: 1925 Reza Khan
World War I (1914-1918)
• Cause: Imperialism, nationalism, militarism,
assassination (Ferdinand) “Balkan Powder
Keg”, alliances
• Central Powers=Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Ottomans) vs. Allied Powers (Britain, France,
Russia, USA, Italy)
• Impact: several fronts, trenches, deadlier
weapons-”Great war”
• Effects: Treaty of Versailles (unfair to Germany)
League of Nations formed
World War II (1939-1945)
• Cause: Germany + Italy = aggressive
• Impact: appeasement (give in), Germany
invades Poland (starts war).
• Allies (B,F, USSR, US) vs Axis (G, I, J)
• Holocaust- genocide
• Pearl Harbor –involves US
• V-E Day May 1945
• Japan surrenders August 1945 after 2 A bombs
dropped
• Effects: Nuremberg Trials, Japan loses military,
Germany split, United Nations formed
Cold War (1946-1990)
• USA vs USSR-hostilities-Democracy vs Communism
• Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan-prevent communism,
strengthen democracy+capitalism
• NATO vs Warsaw Pact=military alliances
• Arms Race + Space Race
• Korean War (n=c) (s=d)->no change
• Vietnam War (n=c) (s=d) South=comm.
• Cuba-Castro-missile crisis 1962-embargo on Cuba
w/US
• End: détente (ease)
– Reagan for U.S.A.
– Gorbachev (glasnost, perestroika), nationalism, fall of USSR
– Yeltsin new president of Russia
Around the World
• Poland
– -solidarity (union) Lech Walesa-No Communism
• Germany
– Fall of Berlin Wall
• Ethnic/religious tensions
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Bosnia
Ireland (Catholic vs Protestant)
Pakistan (Muslims) vs. India (Hindus)
Israel (Jews vs Palestinian Muslims)
Africa
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Apartheid (South Africa)
Somalia
Rwanda (Hutus vs Tutsi’s)
Darfur (Omar al-Bashir)
• Nuclear Warfare (North Korea, India, Pakistan)
• Overpopulation (India, China-1 child policy)
• Urbanization:
– Pollution (acid rain, deforestation, depletion of
ozone, desertification, global warming, endangered
species)
• Green Revolution
– fertilizers, farming techniques increase
food.
• Computer Revolution (new technology)
• Satellite Technology (Space)
• Medical Advances-genetics, cloning, stem cells,
vaccines
• Organizations: OPEC, OAS (Latin America), OAU
(Africa), ASEAN (Asia) EU (Europe)