Chapter 4: The Road to Independence
Chapter 4: The Road to Independence
The Road to Independence
• Tell how the French and Indian War gave
England control of the New World
• Describe the laws that angered the colonists
• Describe how the colonists showed their
anger toward British control
• Describe the First Continental Congress
Words to Know
Act: a law
Committee: a group of people chosen to
do certain work
Correspond: to write letters to someone
and receive letters back
Declaration: a public statement
Delegate: chosen spokesperson
Duty: a tax on goods brought in from a
Hostile: hateful, angry
Loyal: faithful to someone or something
Protest: speak out or act against
Repeal: cancel, put an end to
Statesman: a person who is good at
handling government business
Tax: money people must pay to support a
United: joined together
Colonists Look for New Lands
The English colonies grew quickly so they
decided to push WEST.
On the other side of the Appalachian
Mountains, there was rich land
Ohio River Valley
Oops- France already claimed the Ohio Valley!!
They explored the land, made friends with the
Native Americans, and started a fur trade!
The French and Indian War
Which nation, France or England, should control the Ohio
The war began in 1754, battling in both Europe and in the
In America, the French received LOTS of help from the
They used surprise attacks to confuse their enemy- which
they learned from the Native Americans.
France was winning the war at first, but
England sent over more soldiers and
Then England began to win!
They claimed the Ohio Valley and ALL of
North America east of the Mississippi
England also took control of Canada.
Victory for England Brings New
The colonists helped England through the French and
But after England’s victory, the British took actions that
were very unfair to the colonists.
Passed acts/laws that would help England pay its huge
Made colonists pay a tax on certain goods
One of King George III of England’s law said no
colonists could settle in Ohio River Valley
Proclamation of 1763
The government said that they could not protect its
people against the hostile Native Americans.
Although it was because they did not want the
colonists spreading out and moving beyond its
Britain worried if colonists moved west,
they would buy goods from other
colonies instead- no longer sending
money to England.
New Acts Seem Unfair
England went act-crazy!
Were passing acts one right after another, making the
colonists very angry!!
Colonists did not want to give these new freedoms up!
Passed in 1765 to enable to government to tax
all legal and business papers used in America
Colonists tarred and feathered tax collectors,
burned legal papers and refused to pay the tax.
Colonists boycotted all English goods.
Finally Parliament removed the
(Doesn’t mean King was done taxing)
Charles Townshend, minister of finance, looked
at colonies as a source of money for England
Reduced the colonists’ freedom to govern
Put new taxes on items that were important
Colonists once again boycotted English goods
Trade slowed and colonists were out of work
Protests began to organize
Since money collected from the taxes went back to
England, instead of improving life in the colonies, many
The colonists protested the British acts in different ways
some Americans stopped buying goods from
other refused to pay taxes (went to jail)
“Sons of Liberty” were formed in towns all over the
“No Taxation Without Representation”
Colonists wanted a voice in decisions affecting the
A crowd gathered near a group of British
soldiers and a round of shots were fired.
1st to fall was a free black man, Crispus
Few colonists were killed and several wounded
Colonists demanded soldiers be removed from
Governor agreed to prevent trouble.
Boston Tea Party
A group of colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded
ship in Boston’s harbor on 12-12-1773.
Dumped more than 300 chests of tea into the harbor so the
English would not unload and collect taxes on the tea
Similar incidents took place in other cities as well.
Showed colonists resistance to the English demands!
British Reaction to the Tea Party
The King’s reaction was to pass the:
Closed the port of Boston to all trade
Banned town meetings
Housed British troops in Boston
Required that British soldiers accused of any unlawful
act be tried in England
1st Continental Congress
Sam Adams invited representatives from all the colonies to
meet in Philadelphia for a convention in 1774
Wanted to discuss possible actions against the King
All colonies, expect Georgia, elected delegates
Some included George Washington, Patrick Henry, John Jay
Agreed that a Declaration of American Rights should be
adopted and sent to the King
Also agreed to boycott British goods
Another Congress would be held in 1775 if the king
rejected the Declaration of American Rights.
King and Parliament refused to compromise…
1st shots at Lexington & Concord were fired starting
the AMERICAN REVOLUTION!