S. Studies Review
Government – Distribution of Power
– Power is in the hands of one person or group
– National government has more power than local governments
– Examples: Kenya, Sudan
– Local governments have more power than national government
– Each region governs most of its own affairs
– Regions sometimes consider themselves independent
– Power is divided between national and local governments
– Local governments control local affairs but also obey the
– Usually it is the government of large democracies
– Citizens have little control over the government
– Power is in the hands of one person
– Example: Sudan
– A small group of people control the government
– Most people are not able to affect the government
– Example: former South Africa (under racial apartheid)
– Citizens have more ability to participate than they do in other
– Government leaders are elected into power, directly or indirectly
– Citizens often participate in voting on laws
– Examples: Kenya, South Africa
Forms of Democracy
– Citizens vote for members of the legislative branch
– The executive leader (or prime minister) is appointed from the
– Head of government and head of state are two different people
– Example: South Africa
– Citizens usually vote for members of the executive and
– A single person is elected as chief executive (or president)
• The president is both head of government (chief executive)
and head of state
In recent years, the government of Sudan has attempted
to improve education in its country. However, women's
access to education is still low in Sudan because
A. the government has passed laws against educating
B. there have been very few women who live in Sudan.
C. Sudan does not have any government-owned schools.
D. education for women has not traditionally been
Which country, now a parliamentary
government, was once a racial oligarchy ruled
by the white citizens?
C. South Africa
Israel's Parliament is called
A. the National Assembly.
B. the Loya Jirga.
C. the Knesset.
D. the House of Commons.
• Economic systems dictate what to produce,
how to produce it, how much to produce, and
for whom to produce it. There are diffeent
kinds of economic systems: traditional,
command, market, and mixed. The United
States works under a mixed economy.
Kinds of Economic Systems
1. Traditional: In a traditional economy, decisions are controlled by customs, laws,
habits, and religious beliefs. Native Americans worked under a traditional economy.
2. Command: In a command economy, the government is in charge of economic
activities. The government decides who will produce certain products and how much will
be produced. Some governments even decide who will be allowed to consume a product
and how much of the product those people will be allowed to consume. An example of this
is a communist government, like Russia used to have.
3. Market: In a market economy, also known as a free enterprise economy, individuals
control the economic activities. They make decisions based on the market they are in and
on how much they can buy or sell in a given amount of time. In a market economy, prices
are determined by supply and demand. Within the market economy the ideas of supply,
demand, and prices are used to determine the answers to the four economic questions of
"what to produce," "how to produce," "how much to produce," and "for whom to
produce." The system has four characteristics:
4. Mixed: An economic system where there is a mixture of government and private
ownership. Most countries have a mixed economy. The United States has a mixed economy
that is mostly capitalist in character. People are free to own their own businesses, but the
government intervenes when it needs to (i.e. increasing minimum wage, preventing
monopolies, providing welfare).
• Private ownership of property/resources
• Business decisions are driven by the desire to
earn a profit
• There is a great deal of competition
• Consumers have many choices
• Examples: Japan, Hong Kong
• Central ownership of property/resources
• Centrally planned economy
• Lack of consumer choice
• Examples: China, Cuba, the former Soviet
Union, the former East Germany
• Individuals and businesses as decision makers for the
• Government as decision maker for the public sector
• A greater government role than in a free market
• Most common economic system today
• Examples: India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia,
Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, Egypt, Morocco,
Nigeria, and South Africa
• Allocation of resources is based on rituals,
habits, or customs
• Roles are defined by family
• People work together for the common good
• Little individual choice
• Examples: Early Native Americans
Israel has a high literacy rate and life expectancy for the
people who live there. By investing in things like
education and health care, Israel helps its economy.
This is an example of investing in which of the
A. natural resources
C. capital goods
D. human capital
1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - GDP is the most
inclusive measure of an economy's output. It is
defined as the market value of the total output
of final goods and services produced in one year.
2. Exchange Rates - Because countries around the
world have different currencies, exchange rates
are a factor in international trade. An exchange
rate is how much one currency is worth when
compared to another. Exchange rates are
constantly changing in relation to economic
conditions in various countries
The countries surrounding the _______ are the
richest in oil supplies.
A. Nile River
B. Mediterranean Sea
C. Black Sea
D. Persian Gulf
Currencies of the World
1 U.S. Dollar
1 Japanese Yen
1 British Pound
1 Chinese Yuan
Scarcity is the situation where there is a limited
amount of goods in a market. As products
become scarce, there are less products available
to buy. This means if demand stays the same,
the price will go up. When products or services
are scarce, a lottery may choose who gets the
product or service.
• Resource allocation is the process of setting
resources aside for specific projects, in case of
a shortage. This can be affected by the
economic system that is in place.
• The government decides how to use the
resources. This is called command allocation.
• Market allocation, where the market decides
the allocation of the resources.
Four Factors of Production
• Land: natural resources and property
• Labor: work done by people
• Capital: equipment like tools and machinery,
and human capital (knowledge)
• Entrepreneurship: the managerial skills to
organize above factors
• Economic needs are materials that people
cannot live without—things such as food,
water, and shelter.
• Economic wants are anything else we desire,
which includes entertainment and other
• Producers must meet the needs or wants of
consumers if they hope to make a profit.
Cultures of Africa
• came to North Africa in the 7th century AD, and they brought with them the
religion of Islam. Arab merchants who controlled trade throughout the region of
the Sahara desert spread Islam to other African cultures. Today, most people who
live in North Africa are followers of Islam. Sudan, for example, has an
overwhelming Islamic population.
• have contributed to architecture all over the world through their pyramids. Their
use of stone architecture in building the pyramids was advanced for their time and
influenced other cultures like the Greeks.
The Ashanti people
• live in Ghana, near the Gulf of Guinea on Africa's west coast. The Ashanti formed a
large empire in the 1670s. They speak the Twi language and are known for their
colorful folktales and mythology. One interesting fact among the Ashanti is the
close relationship between a King and his nephew. It is believed in this culture that
a man shares a special relationship with his mother's brother. Therefore, if a king
dies, his nephew (rather than son) will inherit the throne.
• is a term to describe over 400 ethnic groups that live in Africa. These ethnic groups
all speak languages from the same language family and share many similar
customs. Swahili, which is one of the Bantu languages, is the most widely spoken
language on the coast of East Africa.
Which of these cultures has the most widely
spoken native African language?
Cultures of the Middle East
Arabs make up the largest ethnic group in most nations of the Middle East. They have contributed
to Middle Eastern cultures in art, fashion, literature, and government involvement. One of their
most influential contributions to Middle Eastern culture is the Muslim religion. Even in Israel,
where Jews are the dominant ethnic group, Arabs still make the largest ethnic minority.
Afghanistan has three large ethnic groups: the Tajiks, Pashtuns, and Hazaras. Tajiks make up the
largest percentage, about half, and descend from some of the oldest inhabitants of the region.
Pashtuns make up about 20%, and Hazaras make up about 9%.
Persians make up the ethnic majority in Iran. They influence culture in Iran through their
conservative views on religion and politics. They follow a version of Islam (Shi'a) that does not
tolerate other religious minorities.
Bedouins are an ethnic group in Saudi Arabia. Their culture has contributed their government
practices to Saudi Arabia. In Bedouin culture, the Sheikh would consult the men of the tribe
before making decisions.
Berbers are an ethnic group that originated in North Africa and has existed for thousands of years.
Islam became the dominant religion of the Berber people after the Islamic invasion of the 7th
Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world who do not have their own nation-state. They live
in a region known as Kurdistan, which spans from southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and Iraq,
and western Iran. In each of these countries, the Kurds are in the minority and have faced conflict
with ethnic groups which are in the majority.
Jewish culture has greatly influenced the culture of Israel since its founding in 1948. There are
many ethnic groups within the Jewish culture, including European, Russian, Africa, Asian, and
This picture represents
the cultural heritage of
which African country?
The Sunnah is another source of law in Islam and is
A. a new version of the Qur'an as understood in
B. an Arabic version of the Bible different from the
C. the prophet Muhammad's deeds and traditions
during his ministry.
D. the traditions of prophets such as Noah, Moses,
Shia Muslims believe that, after the death of
Mohammed, leadership of the Muslim nation
should have been given to
A. the person elected by the community.
B. the person who defeated the old leader.
C. the wisest person in the community.
D. a direct descendant of Mohammed.
5 Pillars of Islam
The core of Islam is the Five Pillars:
1. Belief in Allah and his prophet Muhammad
2. Prayer five times a day
3. Giving charity to the needy
4. Fasting, or avoiding eating and drinking
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca
• Natural resources are things found in nature, often used to produce
goods and services. Natural resources are either renewable or
• Renewable resources can be replaced, if they are managed properly.
• Nonrenewable resources cannot be replaced. An example of a
renewable resource is timber, which comes from trees. An example of a
nonrenewable resource is oil.
• Human resources represent the quantity and quality of human effort
towards producing goods. It is also called labor. Improving the education
and health of workers is considered investing in human resources.
• An entrepreneur is an example of a human resource and is a person who
comes up with a new idea and takes a risk to produce it.
• Capital resources are goods made by people used to produce other
goods and services. One example is the machines used in factories.
Which body of water is
nearest number 8?
A. Jordan River
B. Suez Canal
C. Euphrates River
D. Tigris River
Which number is nearest
the Gaza Strip?
Today, the West Bank has a number of environmental
issues and concerns. Pollution from the industries that
operate there has destroyed the soil, air, and water
quality of the region.
Which of these could be done to reduce pollution in
the West Bank?
A. encourage economic growth
B. reduce barriers to international trade
C. switch to an industrialized economy
D. increase regulations on industry
Frequent droughts, combined with human effects
on soil, can cause dry and uninhabitable land to
expand. This leads to the destruction of fertile
land and native wildlife. The process is known as
A. acid rain.
B. oil spillage.
This landform is a dry, often sandy region with
little rainfall and sparse vegetation.
What is it called?
D. coastal plain