THEORIES, MODELS, AND FRAMEWORKS

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Transcript THEORIES, MODELS, AND FRAMEWORKS

GROUP 7

THEORIES, MODELS, AND FRAMEWORKS

DEFINITIONS

 Informatics – science that combines:  domain science  computer science  information science  cognitive science – multidisciplinary science drawing from various theories and knowledge applications

DEFINITIONS

 Healthcare informatics – integration of:  healthcare sciences  computer science  information science  cognitive science to assist in the management of healthcare information – subdiscipline of informatics

MEDICAL INFORMATICS HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS DENTAL INFORMATICS NURSING INFORMATICS PHARMACY INFORMATICS

DEFINITIONS

 Nursing Informatics – use of information technologies in relation to any nursing functions and actions of nurses (Hannah, 1985)

DEFINITIONS

 Nursing Informatics – combination of:  computer science  information science  nursing science designed to assist in the management and processing of nursing data, information and knowledge to support the practice of nursing and delivery of nursing care (Graves and Corcoran, 1989)

DEFINITIONS

 Nursing Informatics – specialty that integrates:  nursing science  computer science  information science in identifying, collecting, processing, and managing data and information to support nursing practice, administration, education, research and the expansion of nursing knowledge (ANA, 1994)

NURSING INFORMATICS AS A SPECIALTY

In early 1992, the ANA (American Nursing Association) established nursing informatics with a distinct specialty in nursing w/ a distinct body of knowledge.

The scope of nursing informatics practice includes activities such as developing and evaluating applications, tools, processes and strategies that assist RNs in managing data to support decision-making.

NURSING INFORMATICS AS A SPECIALTY

The core phenomena of nursing are:  the nurse  the patient  health  environment NI is interested in these core phenomena, aside from data, knowledge, information, information structures and technologies.

MODELS FOR NURSING INFORMATICS

 Graves and Corcoran – placed data, information, and knowledge in sequential boxes  Patricia Schwirian – provided a framework for identifying significant information needs, which in turn can foster research  Turley – the core components of informatics (cognitive science, information science and computer science) are depicted as intersecting circles

MANAGEMENT GRAVES & CORCORAN’S MODEL DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE

GOAL USERS TECHNOLOGY SCHWIRIAN’S MODEL RAW MATERIALS

TURNER’S MODEL COGNITIVE SCIENCE INFORMATION SCIENCE COMPUTER SCIENCE NURSING SCIENCE

DATA, INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE HUMAN INTELLECT

DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE

 Data – discrete entities that are described objectively w/out interpretation – include some value assigned to a variable  Information – reflects interpretation, organization or structuring of data – result of processing of data (which occurs when raw facts are transformed through the application of context to give meaning)

DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE

 Knowledge – emerges from the transformation of information – information synthesized so that relationships are identified and formalized The processing of information doesn’t always result in the development of knowledge. Further, knowledge is necessary to the processing of data and information. Knowledge itself may be processed to generate decisions and new knowledge.

ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD

This is any information related to the past, present, and future physical/mental health, or condition of an individual. It resides in electronic systems used to capture, transmit, receive, store, retrieve, link, and manipulate multimedia data for the primary purpose of providing healthcare and health-related services. (ASTM)

ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD

– encompasses the entire scope of health information in all media forms – primary source for information about a client; the place where client information is recorded or documented

NANDA-I TERMINOLOGY Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) Clinical Care Classification (CCC) Omaha System Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) DEFINITION conceptual system that guides classifications of nursing diagnoses contains 514 nursing interventions research-based nomenclature designed to standardize terminologies for documenting care in all settings includes assessment, intervention and outcome components has 330 research-based outcomes to provide standardization of expected outcomes ANA RECOGNITION 1992 1992 1992 1992 1997

TERMINOLOGY DEFINITION Nursing Management Minimum Data Set (NMMDS) includes terms to describe the context and environment of nursing practice Patient Care Data Set (PCDS) includes codes for patient problems, therapeutic goals and patient care orders Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS) provides a universal language for perioperative nursing practice and education and a framework to standardize documentation SNOMED CT a core clinical terminology containing over 357,000 healthcare concepts w/ unique meanings and formal logic-based definitions ANA RECOGNITION 1998 1998 1999 1999, 2003

TERMINOLOGY DEFINITION Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) ABC Codes contains 16 data elements divided into patient, service, and nursing care elements combinatorial terminology for nursing practice including nursing diagnosis, actions and outcomes provide a mechanism for coding integrative health interventions Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) database for standardized laboratory terms ANA RECOGNITION 1999 2000 2000 2002