France - Centennial School District

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Transcript France - Centennial School District

War in Vietnam Review
American involvement
Desire to maintain
American credibility
as having the
resolve to halt
Part of Containment
• European country
Vietnam as a
colony for over 60
Dien Bien Phu
• North Vietnam city where a
French military outpost was
overrun by the communist
Ho Chi Minh
• Leader of the Vietminh
• Fought against the French and
then the U.S.
Domino Theory
• Theory stating that if South Vietnam
fell to communism, the other nations
of Southeast Asia would fall
• Coined by Eisenhower
1956 Elections
• Established by the Geneva
• The United States feared a
communist victory
• Cancelled
Buddhist monks
• Set themselves on fire in protest
in 1963
• Convinced the Kennedy
Administration that Ngo Dinh
Diem was an unpopular leader
and had to be replaced.
Ngo Dinh Diem
• Unpopular leader of South Vietnam
• Initially supported by U.S.
• Assassinated in November, 1963
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
• Congress granted wide-ranging
war power to President Johnson
and allowed him to widen the
Vietnam conflict as a result of a
supposed attack by North
Vietnamese forces on US ships.
Operation Rolling Thunder
• The massive bombing campaign
of North Vietnam.
• In response to VC attack at Pleiku
The Vietcong Strategy
Preferred to use guerilla warfare
Hit and run and ambush
Knew they needed to out last the
Hearts and Minds
• Attempt by the U.S. and South Vietnam to
win the support of peasants
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
• Extended from
North Vietnam
through “neutral”
countries into South
Vietnam to supply
the Vietcong.
William Westmoreland
• Commander of
US troops in
U.S. Soldiers
• recent high
• single
• lower to middle
Tet Offensive
• Viewed as a military failure,
but political success for the
Communist Forces
• More Americans began to
doubt the war
Robert McNamara
• The Secretary of Defense under
Lyndon Johnson until 1968.
Clark Clifford
• Became Secretary of Defense
after McNamara
Tet Offensive
• Media portrayal led to an erosion
of support from the American
public for the war in Vietnam.
Hubert Humphrey
• Johnson’s VP
• LBJ attempted to help his
presidential campaign by
halting bombing of North
War Opposition
Some Americans• Burned their draft cards
• Refused to register
• Claimed to be conscientious
The My Lai Massacre
• The military attempted
to cover up the atrocity
• Shocked many
Americans into
believing the U.S.
needed to withdraw
from Vietnam.
• A U.S. group that
radically opposed
the Vietnam War
• Responsible for
burning the
ROTC building at
Kent State
Hubert Humphrey
• 1968 Democratic Candidate for
• For continuing the war in Vietnam
Doves were
• Hawks were
against the war supportive of
the war
Policy of having the South
Vietnamese troops taking over
more of the fighting
Bought time for the Nixon
administration to seek a
negotiated peace.
Richard Nixon
• Wanted to end the war with
“Peace with Honor”.
• Ordered the secret bombings of
Laos and Cambodia.
Da Nang
In March of 1965 U.S. ground
forces landed.
The Pentagon Papers
• Were critical of
handling of the
Vietnam War.
Kent State Demonstrations
• Resulted from the discovery of
Nixon’s secret bombings and
invasion of Cambodia.
• War protesters were killed at
Kent State and Jackson State.
The Paris Peace Talks
• The successful
between Henry
Kissinger (U.S.)
and Le Duc Tho
(North Vietnam)
Christmas Bombings
• Bombings in late 1972 intended to
pressure the North Vietnamese to
Silent Majority
• Term Richard Nixon, called
Americans who supported the
War in Vietnam but tended to be
less vocal than anti-war activists
Agent Orange
The U.S.
sprayed on the
thick triple
canopy jungle
of Vietnam so
bombers and
troops could
see the enemy
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of dirty
roads & muddy
trails used to
supply the
enemies of the
U.S. in South
South Vietnamese communists
The nickname given to South
Vietnamese communists.
A postponement of military
Henry Kissinger
Nixon’s foreign policy advisor
who negotiated a peace
settlement for the U.S.
Viet Minh
North Vietnamese communists
that fought the French
Lyndon B. Johnson
Used the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
as a reason to deepen US
involvement in the Vietnam
Nixon Doctrine
• US would be less willing to send
ground troops into foreign
US Advantages
• Mobility
• Air Superiority
• Artillery and tanks
• Wanted large scale battles
Communist advantages
• Knowledge of terrain
• Support of peasants
• Preferred guerilla tactics