Why bother with PD?

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Transcript Why bother with PD?

Exploring the Possibilities for
Institution-wide EAL PD
Antoinette Gagné
OISE -- University of Toronto
[email protected]
How well does each of these statements
describe you as a teacher / teaching assistant ?
I enjoy working with my students
I have enough time to plan my lessons
I adapt my teaching easily to new situations
I like to stick to what works with my students
I know where to find resources to do my job
I have the opportunity to work / collaborate with other
members of my community
• I have recently done something to grow as a teacher /
teaching assistant
1) really well 2) somewhat 3) not at all
How well does each of these statements
describe you as a school/program
• I enjoy working with my staff
• I have enough time to plan PD for staff and evaluate their
• I adapt my leadership style as necessary in new situations
• I like to stick to what works with my staff
• I know where to find resources to do my job
• I have recently done something to grow as a leader
• I have the opportunity to work with other members of my
1) really well 2) somewhat 3) not at all
Consider Moving From a
Collection of Individuals to a
Community of Practice
• Communities of practice are groups of people who share
a concern or a passion for something they do and learn
how to do it better as they interact regularly
• It has an identity defined by a shared domain of
interest. Membership therefore implies a commitment
to the domain, and therefore a shared competence that
distinguishes members from other people.
• http://www.ewenger.com/theory/
Becoming a CoP
• In pursuing their interest in their domain, members engage in joint
activities and discussions, help each other, and share information.
They build relationships that enable them to learn from each other.
• Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They
develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools,
ways of addressing recurring problems ,in short, a shared practice.
This takes time and sustained interaction.
• It is the combination of these three elements that constitutes a
community of practice. And it is by developing these three
elements in parallel that one cultivates such a community.
• http://www.ewenger.com/theory/
More Concepts Related to
Communities of Practice
• Expert and novice members of the
• Participation and Alignment
• Reification involves moving from the abstract
to the concrete in order to ensure that fluid
collaborative activity leads to mutual
understanding and movement forward
• Imagination
• Wenger 1998
Structures Facilitating
Participation and Alignment
Integrated teams
Distributed Leadership
Creative scheduling / timetabling
Shared online space
Examples of Community Activities Involving
Participation, Allowing Imagination and Leading
to Alignment and Reification
As a community,
Assessing and welcoming new ELLs
Organizing and taking part in orientation programs for new ELLs
Designing new courses or redesigning existing ones
Adapting the curriculum for ELLs
Team teaching
Monitoring the progress of ELLs across courses
Participating in parent / community councils
Participating in various committees
Conducting action research
Contributing to and participating
in an online community
Engaging in PD
• Consider taking part in the
following activities as an
individual or as member of a
community of practice
• Your individual growth can feed
the growth of the community of
practice if you are a member of a
Need more resources?
• I feel like there are never enough resources
to meet the varied needs of the students in
my multi-level group.
• I work at a centre where I have access to a
computer lab.
• Consider exploring the Internet to find out
just how much there is to support the
learners in your classroom.
ESL Corner
settlement.org website
• There are language tools for vocabulary
development, a glossary and language
exercises with audio and video files.
• This webpage is also useful for ESL
teachers, mentors and volunteers.
• http://settlement.org/site/celebrate/esl.asp
Not sure how to communicate with
the parents/caregivers of my
young students?
• I work at a centre where there is a child care
• Newcomer parents drop their children off
before heading to class.
• I feel uncomfortable because I don’t know the
best way to communicate with them.
• Consider watching the Growing New Roots in
the Community DVD
Growing New Roots in the community:
The Voices of Immigrant Families and
the Teachers of Their Children
Parents from selected immigrant
and refugee communities as
well as teachers, school
administrators and settlement
workers involved with these
communities including:
the Mandarin-speaking community
the Russian-speaking community
the Somali-speaking community
the Urdu-speaking community
the Arabic-speaking community
the Caribbean community
A focus on:
 language
 cultural understanding
 communication
 relationship building
 the role of schools and
 information for families
and caregivers
Need to know more about
teaching writing?
• I work with intermediate to advanced students
who expect that I will always know how to help
them develop stronger written communication
• In the TESL program I took, the instructor only
spent about 6 hours focussing on how to teach
• I really don’t feel up to the challenge and I feel
like I am failing my students
• Consider watching a specially designed Internet
video series on teaching writing
Instructional Video Series on the
• This instructional video series on English composition
for college and high school classrooms and adult learners
introduces basic principles and strategies for improving
writing skills and communicating with a wide variety of
• 26 half-hour video programs and coordinated books
• http://www.learner.org/resources/series128.html#
Feel disconnected?
• I work on my own in a small centre and feel
disconnected from my colleagues.
• Consider joining a professional association
where you will have the chance to meet
colleagues face-to-face at local meetings
and workshops or meet virtually in a variety
of spaces including chat rooms, blogs and
•Founded in 1966, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other
Languages, Inc. (TESOL), is a global education association.
• Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, in the United States, TESOL
has approximately 13,000 members in over 120 countries, and is
recognized as a nongovernmental organization (NGO) of the United
Nations Department of Public Information.
•Its mission is to ensure excellence in English language teaching to
speakers of other languages.
•TESOL values professionalism in language education; individual
language rights; accessible, high quality education; collaboration in a
global community; interaction of research and reflective practice for
educational improvement; and respect for diversity and
Welcome to TESL Canada
• TESL CANADA is a national organization dedicated to
advancing communication and coordinating awareness of
issues for those concerned with English as a second
language and English skills development.
• The organization promotes advocacy for ESL learners,
unifies teachers and learners by providing a forum and
network capabilities, supports the sharing of knowledge
and experiences across Canada, and represents diverse
needs and interests in TESL nationally and internationally.
TEAL Manitoba
• Since you are here today, you already
know the advantage of belonging to this
Consider being a mentor for a
beginning teacher
• "The easiest and fastest way to learn is from
other people. Without other people, the old
wheel must be re-invented again and again
and again." (Feiman-Nemser, 1996)
• The mentor-mentee learning is bidirectional
and rewarding for both mentor and mentee.
Need to refine your online
teaching skills?
• I have been asked to teach a course with an
online component. Although this really
interests me, I don’t feel ready to take on
this responsibility yet.
• Consider taking an online course sponsored
by one of your professional associations or
local universities.
Principles and Practices of
Online Teaching Certificate
• TESOL's "Principles and Practices of Online Teaching"
certificate program is designed for the experienced and the
inexperienced online English language teacher and course
• Whether you design and deliver courses that are fully or
partially run online, the "Principles and Practices of Online
Teaching" program will help develop the skills you need to
effectively teach English language courses online or blend
online segments with your traditional face-to-face courses.
• "Principles and Practices of Online Teaching" consists of
certificate foundation and completion courses, and ten
courses in general and content-specific topics.
Need to know more about
where your students are from?
• Although I work with fairly young children,
I feel like I need to know more about their
families and what life was like before they
came to Canada.
• Consider browsing the Cultural Profiles site
to learn more about the home countries of
the families you spend time with.
Cultural Profiles - Countries of the World
• Each cultural profile provides an overview of life and customs in the profiled
• While the profile provides insight into some customs, it does not cover all
facets of life, and the customs described may not apply in equal measure to
all newcomers from the profiled country. Nor should these profiles be
considered the final word on describing life and customs of people from these
Want some new strategies to
help you get to know your
students better?
• Although I give my students a short survey
to find out about their needs and interests at
the beginning of the course, I would like to
find new ways to get information on their
backgrounds, current interests and
preferences as the semester goes by.
• Consider using an entry or an exit ticket at
the beginning of class once a week.
Entry Tickets
An entry ticket is a student’s response to a question posed at
the end of the last class.
• Entry tickets are handed in at the beginning of class.
• Entry tickets should provide information that will enable
you to get to know your students better.
Possible questions
• Tell me something about yourself that will help me to be a
better teacher for you.
• What goal(s) have you set for yourself in this class (or for
• What are some topics of particular interest to you?
• What has occupied most of your time this past week?
Exit Tickets
An exit ticket is a student’s response to a question posed at
the end of the class.
• Exit tickets are handed in at the end of class.
• Exit tickets should provide information that will enable
you to plan your next lesson effectively.
Possible questions
• Which of today’s activities did you prefer? Why?
• Was there anything in today’s class that made you feel
uncomfortable? If so what?
• What was the most important thing you learned today?
Need some fresh and relevant
• I have been using the same materials to
teach for the last while and I am getting
somewhat bored. I think my students are
picking up on my lack of excitement about
these materials.
• Take the time to make a call so that you can
get your free copy of the many resources
listed on the Settlement.org website.
• This 12 minute video features two students, Purvai and
Ashane, who learn how easy it is to get a library card,
participate in storytelling, join a Summer Reading Club
and get information for their school projects.
• The video also has explains how adults can get career
information at the library.
• For more information on the full video or to order a free
copy please send an email to [email protected]
• These videos are each available in 9 languages
• http://www.settlement.org/site/ed/guide/videos/english.asp
Need to know more about the
history of Canadian immigration?
• My major in college was business. I came to
into teaching ESL as a second career. As a
result I know very little about Canadian
history. The last time I studied history was
in Grade 9 I think.
• Consider reading a book on the history of
Canadian immigration that is available for
free on the Internet.
• Chapter 6 (continued)
Trail-Blazing Initiatives
 Refugees
 Refugees from Tibet
 The Ugandan Asians
 Draft-age Americans in Canada
 Refugees from Chile
 The boat people
• http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/legacy/chap-6a.html
Want to make the curriculum
more relevant?
• I teach intermediate level students and
would like to find a few special topics to
explore that go above and beyond to core
curriculum. I would like to give my students
the opportunity to read or hear about other
immigrants and talk or write about their
own experiences.
• Consider adapting a lesson or unit plan from
the internet to suit your particular context.
Immigrant Experience Resources
• Federation for Immigrant Reform http://www.fairus.org/
• Immigrants Who Have Benefited America
• A tenth-grade class project on American Immigration
• National Park Service, "Ellis Island" http://www.ellisisland.org/
• A lesson plan entitled, "Worlds Apart: Investigating Differences Among the
Experiences of Immigrants"
• Immigration stories from first person interviews and autobiographical
statements from recently emigrated young people.
• A lesson plan entitled, "Home Away from Home: Investigating Your City's
Immigration History." A template lesson that may be importable to local cities
and regions.
Curious about what is really
happening in your class?
• Since there is only one of me and 20 of
them, I often wonder what is happening in
my classroom when I focus my attention on
my lesson plan or the particular needs of
one student or a small group.
• Consider asking a colleague, a volunteer or
even one of your students to use a simple
strategy to help you learn about how your
are relating to your students and how they
relate to each other.
Revealing Interaction Patterns in
the Classroom
• Verbal Flow-Trace interactions between the teacher and students.
Who responds? Who is included? Who is excluded? Is there a pattern?
Use a seating chart to keep track of the interactions. You can use an
arrow away from the teacher if the question is directed to the entire
class. Use an up arrow to indicate a student’s response to the teacher
and a down arrow to record the teacher’s direct interaction with the
student. You may also want to use horizontal arrows to record
student-to-student interaction.
• Class Traffic or teacher use of classroom space-You will need a class
map to track the teaches movement and to note with whom the teacher
Revealing Interaction Patterns in
the Classroom
• Interaction Analysis-Establish what kind of interaction the
teacher has with his/her students i.e. A=when a teacher
praised an idea, E=encouraged idea, A=acknowledged,
L=lectured, etc. You will need a seating chart and it is
helpful to keep track of time, so that a graph can be
constructed with time on the x-axis and interactions on the
• Selective Verbatim-Listen and record-teacher questions or
answers. Focus on selective verbatim clear and unbiased
information to discuss. Audio or Video can help with this
Want to see what is happening
• Make arrangements to spend a class
period, a half day or a full day in
another classroom or school.
• Observe how another teacher, teaching
assistant, program coordinator or
school administrator does things
Ever wanted to try team teaching?
• Start with something small and, if all
goes well, move onto more shared
planning and increase the amount of
team teaching
• Take advantage of each other’s
strengths such as knowledge of
students’ L1 or a particular artistic
Need to learn the lingo?
• I am new to community-based Adult EAL.
Till recently I was working in a private
language school with visiting students.
• Sometimes I feel as disoriented as my
students because I am not sure what my
colleagues are talking about.
• Consider learning the jargon using a
webpage designed for newcomers.
Settlement A to Z
The words you need to know
• Settling in a new place can be confusing. You may see many
unfamiliar words and titles.
• Settlement A to Z will help you learn the words and terms you will
see while you settle in Ontario. You will see these words when you
apply for government programs, look for a job, get healthcare, and
in many other places.
• Each word or title is followed by a definition and related articles to
give you more information.
• This list has been adapted from the glossary at
OntarioImmigration.ca, with their permission.
• If you do not see the word or term that you need, please tell us by
sending us feedback.
Want a guide?
• I love attending workshops but I rarely
remember as much as I would like to. I am a
real “book” person and like to collect
useful reference books that I can reach for
when I feel the need to.
• Consider purchasing one of these 6 books
which all focus on the endless possibilities
for PD.
Pursuing Professional Development:
The Self a Source
K. Bailey, A. Curtis, D. Nunan
Heinle Publishers
1. Why Bother with Professional Development?
2. Self-awareness and Self-observation: Cornerstones
3. Reflective Teaching: Looking Closely
4. Teaching Journals: Pieces of the Puzzle
5. Using Cases: Stories in the Air
6. Langauge Learning Experience: Role Reversal
7. Video: Seeing Ourselves as Others See Us
8. Action Research: In-class Investigations
9. Peer Observation: Someone Else's Shoes
10. Team Teaching: Learning to Dance
11. Mentoring and Coaching: Helping Hands
12. Teaching Portfolios: Cogent Collages
13. Conclusion: The Heart of the Paradox
This books is a practical introduction for teachers, administrators, and coordinators, who wish
to implement a coherent and strategic approach to teacher development.
1. The nature of teacher development
2. Workshops
3. Self-monitoring
4. Teacher support groups
5. Keeping a teaching journal
6. Peer observation
7. Teaching portfolios
8. Analyzing critical incidents
9. Case analysis
10. Peer coaching
11. Team teaching
12. Action research
Cambridge University Press
Professional Development in Language Education
Series (PDLE), Becoming Contributing
Professionals edited by J. Egbert
This volume inspires new teachers to build on the excitement of initial
education. The text includes descriptive accounts of professional
development opportunities that are particularly appropriate for language
teachers during the first few years of
teaching and continually throughout
their careers.
This volume encourages teachers to
embark on professional adventures,
resulting in increased enjoyment of
their careers and professional
TESOL Publications
Becoming Contributing Professionals
Edited by Joy Egbert
Making New Friends: Becoming Involved in a TESOL Organization
Crossing Borders: Volunteering Overseas
In the Limelight: Presenting to Your Peers
Having Dessert First: Writing Book Reviews
Sounding Your Singing Voice: Publishing in Forum Sections
Turning Survival Notes Into Textbook Manuals: Saving and Sharing
Our Work
Student Organizations for Teacher Learners
Learning From Our Students: Using Students to Develop Curricula
In Your Students' Shoes: Learning a Foreign Language as
Professional Development
"Oh! That's Why My Students Didn't Get It!": Videotaping as a
Reective Teaching Tool
Priceless Peer-Mentor Observation
Developing Through E-Mail Discussion Lists
The Web of Professional Development
Professional Development on Cloud Nine: Online Conferencing
Extending Professional Contributions
Volume 2 edited by Tim Murphey
Focusing on midcareer professionals, this second volume includes
descriptive accounts of professional development opportunities
designed specifically so that language teachers can reinvigorate their
teaching and remain on the path of lifelong learning.
Due to the amount of development that
comes from collaboration with other
professionals, this volume offers you
ways to join the conversation and the
excitement of ongoing professional
TESOL Publications
Extending Professional Contributions
Volume 2 edited by Tim Murphey
Long-Distance Collaboration: Rescuing Each Other From the Desert
The "Dead Hand" Project: Intercultural Collaboration and Professional
Professional Development Through Student and Teacher Reection
Fostering Graduate School Teacher Development Through Peer
Pulp Fiction? The Research Journal and Professional Development
How Would PhD Feel After Your Name?
Extending Professional Contributions
Volume 2 edited by Tim Murphey
Net Gains
Growing With the Flow: Sustaining Professionalism Through Online
Instruction of Language Teachers
Get Real! Authentic Assessment in Graduate-Level TESOL Programs
Thais That Bind: Becoming a Teacher Educator Through
International Volunteering
Starting a Local Teacher Study Group
Creating Publishing Communities
Sustaining Professionalism Volume 3
edited by P. Byrd, Patricia and G. Nelson
This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals
continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes
descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their
careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop
This volume reveals how personal
and professional lives are entwined.
It proves that TESOL
professionals can continue to
innovate and rise to challenges
throughout their careers.
TESOL Publications
Sustaining Professionalism Volume 3
edited by P. Byrd, Patricia and G. Nelson
On Remaining a Teacher: Transformations, Detours, and Affirmations
Becoming "Scholar of the College"
Outside In, Inside Out: Creating a Teaching Portfolio
Challenges and Motivations: Organizing a Drama Festival for High
School Students
Writing for Grant Dollar$
The Roller Coaster Ride of Editing a Book
Small Corrections: Becoming a Textbook Writer
Going for the Gold: Managing an Academic Department
Sustaining Professionalism Volume 3
edited by P. Byrd, Patricia and G. Nelson
A Far Cry From the Classroom: Becoming an Administrator
Taking the Bull by the Horns: Designing a Teacher-Initiated
Professional Development Program
Training Teachers to be Teacher Trainers: It's More Complicated Than
You'd Think
Sabbatical Projects Can Make a Difference: A Tale of Curriculum
Moving Into the Unknown: When Leaving a Secure Position Sustains
Your Professionalism
A Fulbright Adventure: Just Do It!
Starting a TESOL Caucus for Nonnative Speakers of English: The
Politics of Professional Development
Communities of Supportive Professionals:
Volume 4 edited by T. Murphey & K. Sato
This volume emphasizes that TESOL professionals can
accomplish a great deal as members of inquisitive, cooperative
communities. The contributors tell stories of their struggles and
achievements, describing
teacher learning communities
and exploring how teachers
might cultivate more
collaborative communities
in their lives.
TESOL Publications
Communities of Supportive Professionals:
Volume 4 edited by T. Murphey & K. Sato
From Judgmental to Developmental: Creating Community Through
The Road Less Traveled: Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers
Take Control of Assessment Standards
The Surprise of Collaboration in Curriculum Innovation
Building a Collaborative School Culture Through Curriculum
Keeping a Grassroots Teacher Development Group Growing
Help! I’m a Program Director
Communities of Supportive Professionals:
Volume 4 edited by T. Murphey & K. Sato
In From the Cold: One-Teacher Schools in Northern Alberta
Communities of Support: A Professional Development Project for
Teachers of English Language Learners
Second Language Teachers From Six States Unite!
Creating a Sense of Community in an Online Graduate Course
Seeds for Community Building: Learning as Professional
Co-Constructing a Community of Qualitative Researchers
What can you commit to?
• Take time today and then each week to
remember the endless possibilities for your
personal and professional development as a
• Start with your interests and needs.
• Start with something doable
• Continue to search for PD activities that work
for you.
• And have fun pursuing your professional
What might your community be
willing to commit to?
• If there is not already a community of
practice where the focus is ELLs in your
institution, get together with a colleague
who is also excited about the possibilities
involved in collaboration and propose an
initial discussion with the rest of the staff in
an attempt to generate some interest
• Use portions of this presentation to help
with the task
A Sampling of Topics for Your
Community of Practice to Explore
The next slides provide examples of the type of
topics and resources you might want to explore as
a community working together to support ELLs
Needs of Immigrant Children and Youth:
The Second Language Acquisition Process
Complexities of Needs of
English Language Learners
Ngo (2004; 2005)
Multiple Worlds Model
Multiple Worlds Model
• Congruent Worlds/Smooth
• Different Worlds/Boundary Crossings
• Different Worlds/Boundary Crossings
• Borders Impenetrable/Boundary
Crossings Insurmountable
What Mainstream Teachers Do
to Engage ELLs
A focus on:
what advance preparation is necessary before instruction
what teaching techniques best serve English language
what learning strategies English language learners need to
how teachers accurately monitor the comprehension of
English language learners
how a classroom can be more effectively organized for
content instruction
How teachers can design realistic assessment for ELLs to
match their developing comprehension
Center for Applied Linguistics
 http://www.cal.org/resources/faqs/RGOs/m
 Resources for Mainstream Teachers of
English Language Learners
 This Resource Guide Online provides links
to articles, digests, books, Web sites, and
ERIC documents that offer information on
the teaching of English language learners in
mainstream classes.
 http://www.siopinstitute.net/
 http://www.cal.org/siop/
 The The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
Model (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2004) was developed to
provide teachers with a well articulated, practical model of
sheltered instruction. The SIOP Model is currently used in most
of the 50 states and in hundreds of schools across the U.S. as well
as in several other countries. The intent of the model is to
facilitate high quality instruction for ELLs in content area
Enhancing English Language
Learning in Elementary Classrooms
Enriching Content
Classes for Secondary
ESOL Students
Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to
Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy
for Adolescent English Language Learners
What's Different About Teaching Reading
to Students Learning English?
Adding English
Negotiating Identities
• Coelho, E. (2003). Adding English: A
Guide to teaching in multilingual
classrooms. Toronto:ON, Pippin.
• Cummins, J. (2001). Negotiating
identities - Second edition. LA:CA,
ESL Infusion
• oise.utoronto.ca/eslinfusion
• You are at the right site if you want to learn to
meet the needs of the ESL learners in K to 12
classrooms. Whether you are a teacher candidate,
a practicing teacher or a teacher educator, you will
find useful resources here as well as a forum to
discuss ESL issues and share good teaching ideas.
Growing New Roots: The Voices of
Immigrant Teenagers in Canada
• English Language Learners from William
Lyon Mackenzie Collegiate Institute in
• A focus on:
• challenges faced,
• strategies adopted and
• suggestions for teachers
ESL Infusion Video Series - Voices
of ESL Learners and Their
• Four videos and companion guides have been created as
support material for pre-service and in-service teachers
who work with ESL students in the mainstream classroom.
This video series is designed to raise awareness of issues
facing ESL students and their teachers in the Canadian
school context. This series allows teachers to actively
engage with paticular themes in order to facilitate the
transfer of newly gained ESL awareness to daily practice
in schools and classrooms.
• oise.utoronto.ca/eslinfusion