Person: hero, teacher, audience, Mai Ling
Place: museums, countries, rain forest, San Diego
Thing: stereo, songs, fences, Pacific Ocean
Idea: sympathy, fairness, generosity, Impressionism
TYPES OF NOUNS
Common noun: names any one of a groups of
persons, places, things or ideas.
Generally not capitalized
Mountain, novelist, ship, movie
Proper noun: names a particular Peron, place
thing or idea.
Mount McKinley, Edith Hamilton, Queen Elizabeth
TYPES OF NOUN
Can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, touch,
hearing, taste, smell)
Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.
Liberty, beauty, kindness, success, Marxism
A group of people, animals, or things
Dog, sunset, thunder, silk, Nile River
Audience, batch, bouquet, bunch, litter, jury, pride, staff
2 or more words that together name a person, place, thing,
Baseball, Civil Rights, sister-in-law
IDENTIFY THE TYPES OF NOUNS
Gumbos often contain, okra and sausage,
chicken, or seafood.
Gumbos: common, concrete
Okra, sausage, chicken, seafood: common, concrete
The popularity of these dishes and other Cajun
dishes has spread throughout the United States.
dishes: common, concrete
United States: proper, concrete, compound
Takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns
her, his, him, they, their
Antecedent: the word or word group that a
pronoun stands for.
Example: Ms. Hamfeldt is a tough teacher. She
gives way too much work.
Which is the pronoun? Which is the antecedent?
The one speaking (first person)
The one spoken to (second person)
The one spoken about (third person)
I, me, my, mine
We, us, our, ours
You, your, yours
You, your, yours
He, him, his, she, They, them,
her, hers, it, its
REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS
Himself, herself, itself,
Refers to the subject of a sentences and functions
as a complement or as an object of a preposition
I am not quit myself today
Cecilia let herself take a study break
Myself is a predicate nominative identifying I
Herself is the direct object of let
They chose costumes for themselves
Themselves is the object of the preposition for
Has no grammatical function in the sentence.
Ray painted the mural himself
The children dyed the eggs themselves.
DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE
Demonstrative: Points out a person, place,
thing, or idea.
This is our favorite camp site.
These books are going to Goodwill
Interrogative Pronouns: Introduces a question
What is the address of the house?
Whose red truck is parked outside the house?
Refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may
or may not be specifically named.
Has anyone asked Ms. Stallsworth?
Everything we need is packed in the car.
IDENTIFY THE PRONOUN(S) IN THE
All of the other members of my family like to go
camping, but few of them enjoy the outdoors
more than I do.
All of us enjoy anything cooked over a campfire.
Often we tell each other eerrie stories.
Who want to go to sleep afterwards?
Modifies a noun or pronoun.
Modify means “to describe” or “to make the meaning
of a word more specific”
several apples some food
An adjective may be separated from the word it
She is clever.
The sky had become cloudy suddenly.
Note: An adjective that is in the predicate and
that modifies the subject of a clause or sentence
is called a predicate adjective.
frequently used adjectives are a, an,
Indefinite articles: a, an
Refer to any member of a general group; come before
words that start with vowels
Definite article: the
Refers to someone or something in particular
A representative is going to help us.
The representative is going to help us.
PRONOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
Demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite
terms pronouns when they stand for other nouns
When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are
Pronoun: Which did you choose, Roberto?
Adjective: Which book did you choose to read, Alex?
Pronoun: Those are excited fans.
Adjective: Those fans are excited.
NOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
a word that can be used as a noun
modifies a noun or pronoun, it is called an
New England states
Proper nouns remain capitalized when used as an
adjective; it is called a proper adjective
verb expresses action or a
state of being. There are three
or helping (auxiliary) verbs
Action or linking verbs
Transitive or intransitive verbs
MAIN VERBS AND HELPING VERBS
A verb phrase consists of a main verb and one
or more helping (auxiliary) verbs.
Forms of Be
Forms of Have
Forms of Do
NOTES ON VERBS
Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used to
express an attitude toward the action or state of
being of the main verb.
Example: I may go to the concert after all.
Helping verbs may be separated from the main
May expresses an attitude of possibility in relation to the
main verb go
Did she paint the house?
The word not and its contraction n’t are never
part of a verb phrase; they are considered
adverbs telling to what extent.
An action verb expresses either physical or
Please return this book. (physical action)
Do you know James? (mental action)
Connects the subject to a word or word group
that identifies or describes the subject. This word
group is called a subject complement.
Kelp is the scientific name for seaweed.
Subject complement is name; it identifies Kelp
Kelp tastes good in salads.
Subject complement is good; it describes Kelp
Commonly Used Linking Verbs
Forms of Be
shall have been
will have been
should have been
would have been
could have been
Some of the verbs listed as Others can be used as
action verbs as well as linking verbs.
FORMS OF BE
always used as linking verbs
An adverb that tells where or when may
follow the form of be
This makes it a state-of-being verb
My friends and I were there yesterday.
There tells where
Yesterday tells when
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Transitive verbs have an object: a word that
tells who or what receives the action of the verb
She trusts her friend.
friend receives the action of the verb trusts
Zora Neale Hurston wrote novels.
novels receives the action of the verb wrote
Intransitive verbs does not have an object.
The audience applauded.
The trains stops here.
A verb could transitive in one sentence and
intransitive in another.
NOTES INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE
Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive.
I studied my geometry notes for an hour.
Luis also studied for an hour.
All linking verbs are intransitive
We are ready for the quiz.
We were told to study a lot.
A verb phrase may be classified as transitive or
intransitive and as action or linking
We are planting some cactus dahlias. (transitive
They should bloom in about six weeks. (intransitive
The flowers will be deep red. (intransitive linking)
Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Tells where, when, how, to what extent
The bird was chirping outside. (where)
The bird chirped today. (when)
The bird chirped loudly. (how)
The bird never chirped. (to what extent)
Identify each adverb and the verb it modifies.
Birds, bats, and bugs fly effortlessly.
In their experiments, they initially produced hot
smoke by burning straw and wood.
Adverb: effortlessly Verb: fly
Adverb: initially Verb: produced
Humans successfully flew for the first time in
November of 1783.
Adverb: successfully Verb: flew
Identify each adverb and the adjective or adverb it
The immensely long wagon train started out from Denver,
A moderately hard rain could turn the trail into a swamp.
Adverb: moderately adjective: hard
The large ones we saw were too expensive for us.
Adverb: immensely Adjective: long
Adverb: too adjective: expensive
Suddenly, Juana had a brainstorm.
Adverb: Suddenly Verb: had
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or
pronoun (object of preposition) to another word.
I rode past the (village)
I rode through the (village).
I rode around the (village).
A preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the
object form a prepositional phrase.
COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS
A preposition that consists of two or more
In addition to
in front of
On account of
By means of
in spite of
FIND THE PREPOSITIONS
According to the coaches of the opposing team,
the soccer game was delayed because of rain.
Near the edge of the stream, the ducks swam
were entering the water to swim across the lake
to the other side.
A conjunction joins words or word groups
Pairs of conjunctions that join words or words groups
that are used in the same way
Join words or word groups that are used in the same
The orchestra played waltzes and polkas.
We can walk to the neighborhood pool or the park.
Not only… but also
Neither the baseball team nor the soccer team has practice today.
Both the track team and the volleyball team enjoyed a winning season.
Their victories sparked the enthusiasm not only of students but also of
teachers and townspeople.
IDENTIFY THE CONJUNCTIONS
Both the captains and their crew members looked
forward to such visits.
The sailors enjoyed the opportunity not only to
chat but also to exchange news.
I looked for Will, but he had already left.
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH
Identify the part of speech of the underlined
words in each example:
Rich heard the light patter of raindrops.
Please help your sister with her homework.
All but two of the students voted in the class
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH
The same word can be a different part of speech depending
on how it is used in a sentence. So, identify the parts of
speech of the word in each example:
They decided that the hedge needed a trim.
Their hedges always look trim and nest.
We usually trim the tree with homemade
I wasn’t thirsty, but I did down one glass of
Dale ran down the stairs.