Coaching Power Point-1
Transcript Coaching Power Point-1
BY CAROL GRAY
Goal of Social Stories…
To teach understanding
over rote compliance
To describe more than
The stories are…
Written in simple language
Based on careful assessments
Focused on an area of core need
Unusual in their focus on what people are thinking
Written in a predictable style to a prescribed formula
What to write?
The child’s needs determine
the topic of the story.
The child’s perspective
determines the focus of the
The first social story…
should be a positive
Each social story…
uses positive language
-and states desired responses positively.
If a reference to a negative behavior is essential to
the story, it is mentioned very carefully and in
general terms, as in “Sometimes people make
Social Story Example
Sitting on the Carpet
Sometimes our class sits on the carpet. We sit on the
carpet to listen to stories and for group lessons. My
friends are trying hard to listen so they can enjoy the
story or learn from the lessons. It can be hard for
them to listen if someone is noisy or not sitting still. I
will try to sit still and stay quiet during our time on
The recommended formula is 2-5
for every 1 directive sentence.
There is no strict rule, but studies
show that this is effective in
changing or praising behavior.
provide specific information about the social
situation (i.e., what the person sees, who is involved
and what happens).
Sometimes our class sits on the carpet.
We sit on the carpet to listen to stories and for group lessons.
At school, most people go to the cafeteria for lunch.
When it is lunchtime, most students eat lunch.
I go to the cafeteria for lunch.
Are these descriptive?
My name is ______________.
I am attending a workshop.
There are many people in the room.
Most people are seated in chairs.
One person is speaking.
The speaker is very interesting.
describe the internal states of other people. These
types of sentences provide information about others’
thoughts, feelings, and moods.
My friends are trying hard to listen so they can enjoy the story or learn
from the lessons.
It can be hard for them to listen if someone is noisy or not sitting still.
Many students like to eat their lunch with others.
Everyone likes it best when each student only
touches their own food.
Are these perspective sentences?
I will enjoy listening to the speaker.
The speaker will like it if I am listening to
I usually have difficulty listening to
If I really try, I will be able to listen to the
Many people want to learn more about
the sentences that tell the student about the
student’s expected behavior in the situation in order
to be successful.
I will try to sit still and stay quiet during our time on the carpet.
When I eat, I will only touch my
I drink my own drink.
Are these directives?
I will try to listen to the speaker.
I will try to sit still, listen, and pay attention to the
I will listen to the speaker and take notes.
I will try to sit quietly next to my friend.
If I need to leave the room, I have two choices:
Choice #1: I may get up quietly and leave.
Choice #2: I may wait for the next break.
Tips to remember…
Can use fill-in-the-blank sentences.
For younger students keep story to 8 or less
Use words like usually and sometimes – allows us to
“break” the rules a bit.
Use pictures or symbols to enhance the meaning of
the story, depending on level of student.
Exercise #1: Descriptive Sentences
Monica, age 6, has a favorite school bus driver and
has difficulty adjusting to other bus drivers. The first
two descriptive sentences of Monica’s story are
provided; write one or two descriptive sentences that
My name is Monica. On most school days, I ride the
Exercise #2: Perspective Sentences
Derek, age 13, has Asperger’s syndrome. He has
difficulty working in a small group at school, and is
resistant to using the ideas of others. What follows is
one perspective sentence found in Derek’s story.
Write another perspective sentence that may be
found in the same story.
Each student in our group has ideas about our
Exercise #3: Rewrite these sentences
Mom makes dinner each night.
It’s important to sit quietly in school.
Time to Practice
Take the next 15 minutes to write a social story for
your target student.
Remember the Formula:
1 directive sentence for every 2-5
BY ELISA GAGNON
Using a child’s special
interests to motivate them to
participate, understand social
What are special interests?
Anything a student is quite narrowly focused
on (talks/reads about a lot)
be tangible – rock collecting, computers,
Can be topical – superheroes, cartoon characters,
presidents, World War I, etc.
Using a student’s special interests can motivate them
in ways other people, stories, or visuals may not.
Since the child wants to be like someone (geologist,
Superman, etc.), he is more likely to comply with
behaviors that are exhibited by the student’ special
POWER Card Components
A short scenario is written in the first person to
describe how their special interest solves a problem.
Use a hero or special interest + behavior/situation that is
difficult for the student
Make sure to keep the language simple and to a minimum but
keep it age appropriate.
Can include illustrations (pictures, computer graphics, student
Paragraph 1 has the hero/role model attempting a solution and
Paragraph 2 encourages the student to try out a new behavior
(broken down into 3-5 manageable steps).
POWER Card Components cont.
Should be the size of a trading card, bookmark,
business card, etc.
Should have a small picture
Lists the solution to the problem behavior/situation
in 3-5 steps
Should be carried by student in pocket, placed in
pencil case, placed in/on desk, readily accessible to
student/teacher on a binder ring, etc.
Steps to Using POWER Cards:
Identify the problem behavior or situation and define
it clearly (choose only on behavior at a time).
Identify the child’s special interest (ask teachers or
parent if you are not sure).
Determine the reason for their behavior:
escape/avoidance, attention, anger, confusion,
control, sensory stimulation, fear, request, denial,
lack of understanding or the situation, etc.
Write the scenario and design the POWER card.
Introduce the scenario and POWER card to the
Steps to Using the POWER Card cont.
Evaluate its effectiveness and modify.
Over time, allow the student to keep the POWER
Card but refer him to it less if the behavior has
Superman and the Bathroom
During his many flights to help people in need, Superman has found it
necessary to stop and use the bathroom once in a while. He knows it is
important to go when he needs to, and he doesn’t wait for someone to
ask him if he has to go. He knows that it is important for superheroes to
take care of their bathroom needs on their own.
Superman would like you to consider these 3 facts:
When you are at school, try and go every time there is a scheduled bathroom
When you are at school, tell your teacher that you need to go to the bathroom if it
is not a scheduled break time.
If you are in the lunchroom or on the playground, tell an adult you are with that
you need to use the bathroom.
Superman is proud of young people who take care of their own bathroom
Sample POWER Card
1. When you are at school, try and go every time there is a
scheduled bathroom break.
2. When you are at school, tell your teacher that you need to go
to the bathroom if it is not a scheduled break time.
3. If you are in the lunchroom or on the playground, tell an adult
you are with that you need to use the bathroom.
!. When you are
The Powerpuff Girls Play a Game
The Powerpuff Girls like to play games. Sometimes they win the
game. When they win the games, the Powerpuff Girls feel
happy. They might smile, give each other a high five or say “
Yea!” But sometimes they lose the game. When they lose the
game, the Powerpuff Girls might not feel happy. They might
take a deep breath, say “Good job” to the winner or say “
Maybe next time.”
The Powerpuff Girls want everyone to have fun playing games.
They want you to remember these three things when playing
games the Powerpuff way:
Games should be fun for everyone.
If you win a game you can: smile, give a high five or say “Yea!”
If you lose a game you can: take a deep breath, say “Good job” to your
friend or say “Maybe next time.”
Sample POWER Card
1. Games should be fun for everyone.
2. If you win a game you can: smile, give a high five or say “Yea!”
3. If you lose a game you can: take a deep breath, say “Good job”
to your friend or say “Maybe next time.”
Time to Practice
Take the next 15 minutes to write a scenario and
POWER Card for a behavior related to your target
BY MICHELLE GARCIA
The ability to consider the points of view, emotions,
thoughts, beliefs, prior knowledge and intention of
This ability is required before developing social
In neurotypical (so-called normal-thinking) people,
social thinking is hard-wired form birth and learned
Students with social disabilities (autism, Asperger’s,
mental illness, etc.) don’t have social thinking
abilities and needs to be taught them explicitly.
Social Thinking teaches individuals:
How their own social minds work.
How their behavior affects those around them.
From this, how behaviors are affecting their own
emotions, responses to and relationships with others
across different social contexts.
Social Thinking Objectives:
Recognize the different levels of their own and
others’ social minds.
Navigate behaviors for more rewarding social
Learn to adapt to people and situations around them
and across contexts.
Social Behavior Charts
Use the following charts to display expected and
unexpected behaviors in certain social situations.
You can modify the forms if you want to take out
information, simplify it or use a different format.
It is always best to discuss the charts extensively with
the student so they understand the behaviors and
emotions. Role-playing the situations is also a great
way to help the student understand the charts.
Time to Practice
Take the next 15 minutes to fill out the expected and
unexpected behavior chart for a behavior related to
your target student.