CHEM12Ch 2.4

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Transcript CHEM12Ch 2.4

2.4 Chemical Reactions >
Chapter 2
Matter and Change
2.1 Properties of Matter
2.2 Mixtures
2.3 Elements and Compounds
2.4 Chemical Reactions
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
CHEMISTRY
& YOU
What happened to the match?
In this lesson, you
will learn to
recognize whether
the burning match is
a chemical change
or physical change.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
Chemical Changes
What always happens during a
chemical change?
3
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
Words such as burn, rot, rust, decompose,
ferment, explode, and corrode usually
signify a chemical change.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
Words such as burn, rot, rust, decompose,
ferment, explode, and corrode usually
signify a chemical change.
• The ability of a substance to undergo a
specific chemical change is called a chemical
property.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
Iron is able to combine with oxygen to
form rust.
• The ability to rust is a chemical property of
iron.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
Chemical properties can be used to identify
a substance.
• But chemical properties can be observed only
when a substance undergoes a chemical
change.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
When charcoal is broken into smaller
pieces, the change is a physical change.
• The substances present
before the change are
the same substances
present after the change,
although the charcoal
pieces are not as large.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
When charcoal is broken into smaller
pieces, the change is a physical change.
• During a physical
change, the composition
of the matter never
changes.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
During a chemical change, the
composition of matter always
changes.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
When the charcoal is heated and burned,
a chemical change occurs.
• The substances in
charcoal react with
oxygen in the air to
form other
substances.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
A chemical change is also called a
chemical reaction.
• One or more substances change into one
or more new substances during a
chemical reaction.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
A chemical change is also called a
chemical reaction.
• One or more substances change into one
or more new substances during a
chemical reaction.
• A substance present at the start of the
reaction is a reactant.
• A substance produced in the reaction is a
product.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Chemical Changes
In the burning of charcoal, carbon and
oxygen are the main reactants, and
carbon dioxide is the main product.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
What is always true of a chemical
change that is never true of a
physical change?
15
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
What is always true of a chemical
change that is never true of a
physical change?
During a chemical change, the composition of
the matter always changes. During a physical
change, the composition of the matter never
changes.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Recognizing Chemical Changes
What are four possible clues
that a chemical change has
taken place?
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Possible clues to chemical change
include a transfer of energy, a
change in color, the production of a
gas, or the formation of a
precipitate.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Every chemical change involves a
transfer of energy.
• For example, energy stored in natural gas
is used to cook food.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Every chemical change involves a
transfer of energy.
• For example, energy stored in natural gas
is used to cook food.
– When the methane in natural gas chemically
combines with oxygen in the air, energy is given
off in the form of heat and light.
– Some of this energy is transferred to and
absorbed by food that is cooking over a lit gas
burner.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Every chemical change involves a
transfer of energy.
• For example, energy stored in natural gas
is used to cook food.
– The energy causes chemical changes to take
place in the food.
– The food may change color and brown as it
cooks, which is another clue that chemical
changes are occurring.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
You can observe two other clues to
chemical change while cleaning a bathtub.
• The ring of soap scum that can form in a
bathtub is an example of a precipitate.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
You can observe two other clues to
chemical change while cleaning a bathtub.
• The ring of soap scum that can form in a
bathtub is an example of a precipitate.
– A precipitate is a solid that forms and
settles out of a liquid mixture.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
You can observe two other clues to
chemical change while cleaning a bathtub.
• The ring of soap scum that can form in a
bathtub is an example of a precipitate.
– Some bathroom cleaners that you can use to
remove soap scum start to bubble when you spray
them on the scum.
– The bubbles are produced because a gas is
released during the chemical change that is taking
place in the cleaner.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
If you observe a clue to chemical
change, you cannot be certain that a
chemical change has taken place.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
If you observe a clue to chemical
change, you cannot be certain that a
chemical change has taken place.
• The clue may be the result of a physical
change.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
If you observe a clue to chemical
change, you cannot be certain that a
chemical change has taken place.
• The clue may be the result of a physical
change.
– For example, energy is always transferred when
matter changes from one state to another.
– Bubbles form when you boil water or open a
carbonated drink.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
If you observe a clue to chemical
change, you cannot be certain that a
chemical change has taken place.
• The only way to be sure that a chemical
change has occurred is to test the
composition of a sample before and after
the change.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Clues to chemical change often have
practical applications.
Production of a Gas
• Bubbles of carbon
dioxide form when two
antacid tablets are
dropped into a glass of
water.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Clues to chemical change often have
practical applications.
Color Change
• When a test strip is
dipped in a solution, the
color change is used to
determine the pH of the
solution.
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Recognizing Chemical
2.4 Chemical Reactions > Changes
Clues to chemical change often have
practical applications.
Formation of a Precipitate
• One step in the
production of cheese is
a reaction that causes
milk to separate into
solid curds and liquid
whey.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
CHEMISTRY
& YOU
Are the changes that happen to a
burning match chemical or physical
changes? How do you know?
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
CHEMISTRY
& YOU
Are the changes that happen to a
burning match chemical or physical
changes? How do you know?
A burning match is
undergoing a chemical
change. There is a transfer
of heat, a production of
light, and a change of color.
The composition of the
materials also changes
during the burning process.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
How can you determine for sure that
a chemical change has taken place?
34
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
How can you determine for sure that
a chemical change has taken place?
The only way to determine for sure if a
chemical change has taken place is to test
the composition of a sample before and after
the change.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Mass
How are the mass of the reactants
and the mass of the products of a
chemical reaction related?
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
When wood burns, substances in the
wood combine with oxygen from the air.
• As the wood burns, a sizable amount of
matter is reduced to a small pile of ashes.
• The reaction seems to involve a reduction
in the amount of matter. But appearances
can be deceiving.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
During any chemical reaction, the
mass of the products is always
equal to the mass of the reactants.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
Two of the products of burning wood—
carbon dioxide gas and water vapor—
are released into the air.
• When the mass of these cases is
considered, the amount of matter is
unchanged.
• Careful measurements show that the total
mass of the reactants equals the total mass
of the products.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
Mass also holds constant during
physical changes.
• When 10 grams of ice melt, 10 grams of
liquid water are produced.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
The scientific law that reflects these
observations is the law of conservation
of mass.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
The scientific law that reflects these
observations is the law of conservation
of mass.
• The law of conservation of mass states
that in any physical change or chemical
reaction, mass is conserved.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
The scientific law that reflects these
observations is the law of conservation
of mass.
• The law of conservation of mass states
that in any physical change or chemical
reaction, mass is conserved.
• Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Conservation of Mass
The law of conservation of mass is more
easily observed when a change occurs
in a closed container.
• When the liquids in the figure at left are mixed,
they react. None of the products are gases.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
To what changes does the law of
conservation of mass apply?
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
To what changes does the law of
conservation of mass apply?
The law of conservation of mass applies to
chemical and physical changes.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Key Concepts
During a chemical change, the
composition of matter always changes.
Four possible clues to chemical change
include a transfer of energy, a change in
color, the production of a gas, or the
formation of a precipitate.
During any chemical reaction, the mass
of the products is always equal to the
mass of the reactants.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Glossary Terms
• chemical property: the ability of a substance
to undergo a specific chemical change
• chemical reaction: a change in which one or
more reactants change into one or more
products; characterized by the breaking of
bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds
in products
• reactant: a substance present at the start of a
reaction
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2.4 Chemical Reactions > Glossary Terms
• product: a substance produced in a chemical
reaction
• precipitate: a solid that forms and settles out
of a liquid mixture
• law of conservation of mass: in any physical
change or chemical reaction, mass is
conserved; mass can be neither created nor
destroyed
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
BIG IDEA
Chemistry as the Central Science
The different forms of matter may
undergo physical or chemical
changes.
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
END OF 2.4
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2.4 Chemical Reactions >
Bellwork 8/25
How many periods are there on the
periodic table? How many groups?
What is one difference between a
compound and a mixture?
52
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