Preparing Cutover Woodland for Longleaf Establishment Powerpoint

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Transcript Preparing Cutover Woodland for Longleaf Establishment Powerpoint

Preparing Cutover Woodland for
Longleaf Establishment
By
Larry J. Such
NC Division of Forest Resources
“There is a strong, direct, and positive
correlation between percent survival
and initiation of height growth with
intensity of site preparation”
(NCFS Forestry Note No. 61, “Establishment and Growth of
Longleaf Pine on Droughty Sites in North Carolina, May 1988”
Importance of Site Preparation
“Longleaf pine is a very intolerant species and
is difficult to regenerate without effectively
controlling competing vegetation”
(“Regenerating Longleaf Pine with Artificial Methods”, USDA,
Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, 1989”
“Much of the failure in (longleaf) plantations
is due to submarginal nursery stock or
inadequately prepared planting sites.”
(“Longleaf Pine Management”, USDA, Forest Service, Forestry
Report R8-FR 3, December 1983)
Importance of Site Preparation
“Longleaf . . . will grow best in the
complete absence of all competition, . . . ”
(“Silvics of North America”, Vol. 1, USDA, Forest Service,
Ag. Handbook 654)
“. . . it is imperative that adequate site prep
be completed prior to tree planting . . .”
(Don H. “Zippo” Robbins, 1996 memo to Technical
Development Unit)
Site Prep
Considerations?
Site Preparation Considerations
Landowner’s Objectives & Commitment
• Why does L/O want Longleaf? Timber? Straw? Wildlife?
• What level of financial & time commitment does L/O have?
Site Quality
• Good sites require more complete site prep
Composition of Previous Stand
• Was there a hardwood or brush component?
Competition Potential
Site Prep Methods
Mechanical / Heavy Equipment
Herbicides
Prescribed Burning
Hand Tools
Mechanical Site Prep
KG / Shear and Pile
• Expensive
• High Potential for Site Damage
• Provides optimum vegetation control
• Best control when done after full leaf;
early to mid summer
• Can be combined with other treatments
such as bedding
For best results
Keep the blade sharp!!
Avoid site damage • minimize soil movement / displacement
• avoid compaction
• leave the litter layer to minimize
evaporation and erosion potential
Site Prepared - KG Sheared, Piled, Bedded
Mechanical Site Prep
Drum Chopping
• Less Expensive than KG / Shearing
• Less Potential for Site Damage
• Provides acceptable vegetation control
• Best control when done soon after full leaf;
late spring or early summer
• Can be combined with other treatments
such as burning and / or bedding
Drum Chopped Area
Site Prep - Chopped & Burned
Chopping minimizes soil disturbance
Mechanical Site Prep
Bedding
• Adds more cost to project
• Provides an elevational advantage
• Incorporates organic matter in beds
• Provides additional vegetation control
• Usually combined with other treatments
• Beds must be allowed to settle before planting
Savannah Bedding Plow
V-Shear & Bed
Mechanical Site Prep
Other Mechanical Methods:
• Root-Rake & Pile
• V-Blade
• Furrowing
• Discing
Herbicides
• ground, aerial, by hand
• soil and/or foliage active
• tank mix to control species mix
• usually provides optimum long-term
control because it kills the entire plant !!
• always follow the label
Prescribed Burning
• used in combination with other treatments
(chopping or herbicides) to provide a better
level of site prep;
• helps reduce germination of seeds stored in
the litter layer;
• DOES NOT usually provide sufficient control
when used as a single treatment
Burning after chopping or
herbicide treatments makes tree
planting easier and more likely
to succeed!!
Burning removes the litter layer
which facilitates planting seedlings at
the proper depth
If you plan to plant longleaf, do it right
the first time -- don’t scrimp on the site
prep. Inadequate site prep will cost
more in the long run!!!
Closing Remarks
“First year survival is often more difficult to attain
with longleaf pine than with other (pine) species.
The seedlings usually remain “in the grass” (stage)
for 3 to 5 years, and, . . . Places longleaf at a
disadvantage in comparison with other southern
pines. It also handicaps longleaf in competition
with hardwood sprouts and brush and even grass
and weeds, . . . Where height growth is unduly
delayed, mortality is likely to continue annually for
many years.”
* [Source: “Planting the Southern Pines”, Philip Wakeley, USDA FS, Ag. Monograph No. 18, 1954]