Chapter 3: Climates, Environments, and Resources.

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Transcript Chapter 3: Climates, Environments, and Resources.

Chapter 3:
Climates,
Environments,
and Resources.
What is Weather?
•The short-term
changes in the air for
a given place and
time
• Temperature and
precipitation
from hour to hour or
day to day
What is Climate?
•A region’s average
weather conditions over a
long period
•The expected weather for
a place based on data
and experience
What
affects
weather and
climate?
• The sun, location, wind,
water, and mountains
affect weather and climate.
Sun and Location
• Earth’s Tilt, Movement,
and Shape affect the
amount of direct sunlight a
place receives.
• Solar rays are more
concentrated near the
equator.
• Areas close to equator called
low-latitudes are
mainly hot.
• Areas near the poles called
high-latitudes are cold
year-round.
Wind and Water• Air and water
warmed by the sun
are constantly on the
move, making
different areas of Earth
warmer or
cooler.
• Wind, or the sideways
movement of air,
blows in great
streams around the
planet.
Wind and Water
• Prevailing
winds are winds
that blow in the
same direction
over large areas of
Earth.
• Hot Air: rises and
then cools
• Cold Air: sinks
but is reheated by
sun
Ocean Currents
• Ocean currents —large streams of surface
seawater driven by winds—move heat
around Earth.
• Carry warm or cool water to different areas
• Water’s temperature affects air
temperature near it.
Large Bodies of Water
• Large bodies
of water, such
as an ocean or
sea, also affect
climate.
• Water heats
and cools more
slowly than
land does.
Large Bodies of Water
• Large bodies of
water make the
temperature of
the land nearby
milder.
• The place
where two
air masses of
different
temperatures or
moisture
content meet is
a front.
Storms
Thunderstorms:
• Rain, lightning,
and thunder
• Mostly Spring
and Summer
Storms
Blizzards:
• Strong
winds and
large
amounts of
snow
• Mostly
winter
Storms
Tornadoes:
• Small, rapidly twisting
funnel of air that
touches the ground
• Can be
destructive and
deadly
Storms
Hurricanes &
Typhoons:
• Large, rotating storms
that form over tropical
waters in the Atlantic
Ocean (hurricanes) or
Pacific Ocean
(typhoons).
• Drenching rains, strong
winds, and storm surges
• Largest, most
destructive storms
Mountains
• Mountains can
influence an area’s
climate by affecting
both
temperature
and
precipitation.
• Temperature
decreases with
elevation, the
height on Earth’s
surface above
sea level.
Mountains
• Mountains also
create wet and
dry areas.
• Air blowing
against mountains
is forced to rise.
• As the air rises, it
cools and
precipitation
falls.
Mountains
• This effect
produces a
rain shadow,
a dry area on
the
mountainside
facing away
from the
direction of
the wind.
Rain Shadow
RAIN SHADOW:
Please
label and
color your
diagram
of the
Rain
Shadow
Effect.
Glue to
pg. 28
Videos to Check Out:
• Desertification
• Toxic Love: Environment Destruction
World Climate Zones
• Check in with home group.
• Meet with expert group and discuss
climate.
• Pick 4 important facts:
– Focus on Temperature, Precipitation, Vegetation
and Location
• Report back to group with information.
• Take turns teaching your home group
about your climate.
World Climate
Regions
There are 5 major climate
regions
•Tropical
•Dry
•Temperate
•Polar
•Highland
Objective
• Identify the 5 major climate
types
• Identify characteristics of
each climate type.
Behavioral Expectations
• Work QUIETLY in your own
groups
• Everyone MUST participate!
• Remember, you are the teacher
and your group is counting on
YOU!
World Climate Regions
If the climate regions of
the world could talk
which one would say…..
I am the climate type
that receives less than 1020 inches of rain each
year
Dry
My climate’s
name means
“moderate” or
“mild.”
Temperate
I am the climate type
can be found in
mountain ranges and
can change drastically
with elevation
Highland
My climate is very
cold and usually
covered by ice or
snow year round.
Polar
My warm climate
type spans from
the Topic of
Cancer to the
Tropic of
Capricorn.
Tropical
If you went to the
North and South
Poles you would
find my climate
type there!
Polar
Tennessee is
located in my
climate type!
Temperate
Natural
Environments
and
Natural
Resources
Natural Environments
The Big Idea
Plants, animals, and the
environment, including soil,
interact and affect one another.
Main Ideas
• The environment and life are
interconnected and exist
in a fragile balance.
• Soils play an important
role in the environment.
The environment and life are
interconnected and exist in a fragile
balance.
• Plants and animals live
where they are suited to
the environment, or
surroundings.
– Factors such as
temperature,
rainfall, and soil
conditions limit
options of where they
can live.
– All plants and animals
are adapted to specific
environments.
Ecosystem— a
group of plants
and animals that
depend on each
other for
survival and the
environment in
which they live
•Formed from
interconnections
between living
things and the
environment
•Can be any size
and can occur
wherever air,
water, and soil
support life
Changes to Environments
Ecosystems exist in a fragile balance; a small change
to one part can affect the whole system.
People can affect ecosystems in many ways.
Some actions can destroy a habitat —the place
where a plant or animal lives.
Extreme changes in ecosystems can cause species to die
out, or become extinct.
Many countries are working to balance people’s
needs with the needs of the environment.
Soils play an important
role in the environment.
• Soils help determine what plants
will grow and how well.
• Fertile soils are rich in minerals and
humus, decayed plant or animal
matter.
– Support abundant life
• Soils can lose fertility in many ways.
– Erosion
– Planting the same crops
over and over
• When soil becomes worn out, it
cannot support as many plants.
– Can lead to desertification,
the spread of desert like
conditions
Pg. 33 in Passport
1. What factors can limit where plants
and animals live?
2. What affect does the smallest change
on the ecosystem have overall?
Explain.
3. Fertile soils contain what two
things?
4. What is desertification?
Natural Resources
The Big Idea
Earth’s natural resources have many valuable uses, and
their availability affects people in many ways.
Main Ideas
• Earth provides valuable resources for our use.
• Energy resources provide fuel, heat, and
electricity.
• Mineral resources include metals, rocks, and salt.
• Resources shape people’s lives and countries’ wealth.
Natural Resources
Using Natural
Resources
Types of Natural
Resources
• A natural resource is
any material in
nature that people
use and value.
• Renewable
resources are
resources Earth
replaces naturally.
• Some are used as is.
• Nonrenewable
resources are
resources that
cannot be replaced;
they will run out
one day.
• Some are changed
to make something
new.
Managing Natural
Resources
• People must manage
resources to ensure
they will be
available in the
future.
• Deforestation, the
clearing of trees, is a
result of lack of
management.
• Reforestation,
planting trees to
replace lost
forestland, works to
prevent resource
loss.
Renewable vs.
Nonrenewable
Nonrenewable Energy Resources
• Fossil fuels, nonrenewable
resources that formed from
the remains of ancient plants
and animals.
• Coal—pollutes the air; used
mainly to create electricity at
power plants
• Petroleum, or oil—used to
make fuels and other
products
• Natural gas cleanest-burning
fossil fuel; used mainly for
heating and cooking
Renewable Energy Resources
• Will not run out
• Generally better for the
environment
• Hydroelectric power —the
production of electricity from
waterpower—is the main
alternative to fossil fuels.
• Wind is used to power wind
turbines that create electricity.
• Solar power and geothermal
energy —heat from within
Earth
Nuclear Energy
• Obtained by splitting atoms, small particles of matter
• Uses the metal uranium, so some consider it a nonrenewable resource
• Produces dangerous wastes that must be stored for thousands of years
before they are safe
• Accidents at nuclear power plants have terrible effects.
Mineral
Resources
Mineral resources include metals, salt, rocks, and gemstones.
Minerals fulfill countless needs.
Minerals are nonrenewable, and therefore need to be
conserved.
Recycling can make the supply of mineral resources last longer.
•
Resources and
People
The natural resources available to people affect their lifestyles and needs.
– People in areas with many natural resources sometimes have more choices on ways to
dress, eat, live, travel, and entertain themselves.
– People in areas with fewer natural resources will likely have fewer choices and
different needs.
•
Availability of natural resources affects countries’ economies.
– The many resources available in the United States have helped it become one of the
world’s wealthiest economies.
– Countries with few natural resources often have weak economies.
– Some countries have only one or two valuable resources but few others.
Oil
Fossil Fuels
Gold
Water
Water
Crops
Solar Energy