Lecture 2 Sustainable urban transport / mass transit systems, BRT
Lecture 2 Sustainable urban transport / mass transit systems, BRT
Sustainable urban transport / mass
transit systems, BRT models and
Dr. Muhammad Adnan
Sustainable Transport (Definition & Concept)
TSM and TDM Strategies
Sustainability through TDM strategies
Various TDM Strategies and their effects
Mass Transit Systems
BRT Definitions and Examples
Succesful Models of BRT
• There is no universally accepted definition of sustainability, sustainable
development or sustainable transport
European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT 2004)
– A sustainable transport system is one that is accessible, safe, environmentallyfriendly, and affordable
“The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environment, social and
economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation
– A sustainable transportation system is “one in which fuel consumption, vehicle
emissions, safety, congestion, and social and economic access are of such levels
that they can be sustained into the indefinite future without causing great or
irreparable harm to future generations of people throughout the world.”
Who is More Sustainable?
• Who is more sustainable, somebody who
drives a fuel-efficient vehicle high annual
miles, or somebody who drives an inefficient
vehicle low annual miles?
An appropriate Answer
• If sustainability is defined only in terms of fuel efficiency and
related emissions, it can be achieved by driving a fuel efficient
vehicle, such as a 60 mile-per-gallon (MPG) hybrid car. However,
such a car does not reduce traffic congestion or the barrier effect
(delay and risk to pedestrians and cyclists), road and parking
requirements, accident risk, or sprawl.
• A motorist who lives in a more accessible location and relies on
alternative modes as much as possible (for example, commuting by
bicycle, carpool or transit most days) and so drives an average
efficiency vehicle low annual miles, consumes a similar amount of
fuel, but imposes far lower costs on society overall.
Objectives of Sustainability &
• TDM Encyclopedia
Measuring Sustainability (1)
Sustainability and sustainable transportation are difficult to measure directly, so
various Performance Indicators are used to evaluate them. Some are relatively narrow,
focusing on just a few impacts, such as air pollution emissions, while others attempt to
represent a broader range of economic, social and environmental objectives (Gilbert and
Tanguay 2000; Litman 2009 and 2011). Below are examples of indicators.
– Quality of Overall Accessibility (ability to reach desired goods, services and activities).
More is better.
– Land Use Mix - Number of job opportunities and commercial services within 30-minute
travel distance of residents. Higher is better
– Children’s accessibility - Portion of children who can walk or bicycle to Schools, shops
and parks from their homes. Higher is better.
– Commute speed - Average commute travel time. Lower is better, particularly for
– Transport diversity - Variety and quality of transport Options available in a community.
Higher is better.
Measuring Sustainability (2)
• Transit service – Public transit service quality, including coverage (portion
of households and jobs within 5-minute walking distance of 15-minute
transit service), service frequency, comfort (portion of trips in which
passenger can sit and portion of transit stops with shelters), affordability
(fares as a portion of minimum wage income), information availability, and
safety (injuries per billion passenger-miles).
• Motor Transport Options - Quantity and quality of airline, rail, public
transit, ferry, rideshare and taxi services. Higher is better.
• Congestion delay - Per capita traffic Congestion delay. Lower is better.
• Consumer Transport costs - Portion of household expenditures devoted to
transport (Transport cost). Lower is better
TSM vs TDM
• TSM: Transportation Supply Management
• TDM: Transportation Demand Management
• Transportation supply management (TSM) strategies maintain or
improve safety for all users, defer the need for major infrastructure
investments, provide the best possible level of service, and
minimize the impacts of transportation activities on community
• Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies include a
variety of measures to reduce individual transport and change
transport demand types.
SUPPLY SIDE (TSM)
DEMAND SIDE (TDM)
• Efficient Use of
• Manage Existing
• Increase Supply
• Control Demand
Efficient use Via Traffic Engineering Measures
Improvement of Alternative Modes
Public Transportation, Paratransit, Bicycle/Walking
Integrated Multi-Mode Transport System
Park and Ride Facilities, Kiss and Ride Facilities
Transportation Infrastructure Development
Functional Roads (Ring Roads/ Bypass, increase in road capacity),
Intelligent Transportation System, Low Emission vehicles, etc.
Transportation Demand Management
Travel Reduction, Peak Spreading, Modal Shift, road pricing, car pooling,
Land Use / Urban Planning
Growth Management, Compact city, Transit-Oriented Development
Regional / National Development Policy
Development of secondary cities
Industrial / Labor Policy
Work/Business Styles, Production and Distribution Processes
Life Style, Leisure
Significance of TDM Strategies
• TDM strategies are important part of the
transportation plan due to the inherent ability to
provide the following benefits to the commuting
Better Transportation Accessibility
Better Transportation Predictability
More, and timelier information
A range of commute choices; and
Enhanced Transportation system performance
TDM Strategies (1)
• Flextime: Flextime allows workers to adjust
their commuting time away from the peak
– For example, rather than all employees working 8:00 to 4:30, some
might work 7:30 to 4:00, and others 9:00 to 5:30.
• Compressed Work Week: This means that
employees work fewer but longer days,
• such as four 10-hour days each week (4/40), or 9-hour days with
one day off every two weeks (9/80)
Travel Impact Summary
TDM Strategies (2)
• Telework: It is a general term for the use of
telecommunications (telephone, fax, email,
websites, video connections, etc.) to
telecommunications service quality improves
(particularly high speed Internet), the
feasibility of telework increases.
TDM Strategies (3)
• Economists have long advocated Road Pricing as an efficient and
equitable way to Finance Roads other Transportation Programs, and
encourage more efficient transportation. Road Pricing has two
general objectives: revenue generation and congestion
management. They differ in several ways, as compared in the table
Road Pricing (Variants)
– Tolls are a common way to fund highway and bridge improvements. Such tolls are a feefor-service, with revenues dedicated to roadway project costs. This is considered more
equitable and economically efficient than other roadway improvement funding options
which cause non-users to help pay for improvements
– Congestion Pricing (also called Value Pricing) refers to variable road tolls (higher prices
under congested conditions and lower prices at less congested times and locations)
intended to reduce peak-period traffic volumes to optimal levels. Tolls can vary based on
a fixed schedule, or they can be dynamic, meaning that rates change depending on the
level of congestion that exists at a particular time.
– High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes are High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) lanes that also
allow use by a limited number of low occupancy vehicles if they pay a toll (Stockton and
Daniels 2000; Poole and Orski 2001). It is a type of Managed Lane (Goodin 2005). This
allows more vehicles to use HOV lanes while maintaining an incentive for mode shifting,
and raises revenue. HOT lanes are often proposed as a compromise between HOV lanes
and Road Pricing.
Vehicle Use Fees:
– Distance-Based Charges such as mileage fees can be used to fund roadways or reduce
traffic impacts, including congestion, pollution and accident risk. A proposal by the UK
Commission for Integrated Transport (CFIT, 2002) proposes that existing vehicle
registration fees and fuel taxes be replaced by a variable road user charge using GPSbased Pricing Methods, as a way to reduce traffic congestion and more equitably reflect
the roadway costs imposed by each vehicle.
Bus Rapid Transit
• According to TRB (USA): BRT can be defined as a
flexible, rubber-tired rapid-transit mode that
combines stations, vehicles, services, running ways,
and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) elements
into an integrated system with a strong positive
identity that evokes a unique image.
BRT definitions (2)
• Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) refers to a set of bus system design
features that provide high quality and cost-effective transit
service. These include:
• Grade-separated right-of-way, including busways (for bus use only, also
called O-bahn or Quickways) HOV lanes (for buses, vanpools and
carpools), and other Transit measures. Some systems use guideways which
automatically steer the bus on portions of the route.
• Frequent, high-capacity service that results in passenger waits of less than
10-minutes during peak periods.
• High-quality vehicles that are easy to board, quiet, clean and comfortable
• Pre-paid fare collection to minimize boarding delays.
• Integrated fare systems, allowing free or discounted transfers between
routes and modes.
• Convenient user information and Marketing programs.
• High quality bus stations with Transit Oriented Development in nearby
• Modal integration, with BRT service coordinated with walking and cycling
facilities, taxi services, intercity bus, rail transit, and other transportation
• Excellent customer service.
• Improved Security for transit users and pedestrians.
Conditions of BRT Systems
(Result of a case study, 29 systems)
Running ways, attractive stations and bus stops, distinctive easy-to-board vehicles,
off-vehicle fare collection, use of ITS technologies, and frequent all-day service
(service should operate at least 16 hours each day, with midday headways of 15
minutes or less and peak headways of 10 minutes or less)
Over 80% of the systems have some type of exclusive running way—either a busonly road or bus lane. More than 75% provide frequent all-day services, and about
66% have “stations” in addition to the usual bus stops.
In contrast, only about 40% of the systems have distinctive vehicles or ITS
applications, and only 17%(ﬁve systems) have or will have off-vehicle fare
Three existing systems have all six basic features, including Bogotá’s TransMilenio,
Curitiba’s median busways, and Quito’s Trolebus. Several systems under
development (e.g., Boston, Cleveland, and Eugene) will have most BRT elements.
Details of BRT Features
• Running ways: Running ways for BRT include mixed traffic
lanes, curb bus lanes, and median busways on city streets;
reserved lanes on freeways; and bus-only roads, tunnels, and
• Stations: The spacing of stations along freeways and busways
ranges from 2,000 to almost 7,000 feet, enabling buses to
operate at high speeds. Spacing along arterial streets ranges
upward from about 1,000 feet. Overhead walks with fences
between opposite directions of travel, low platforms etc
• Vehicles: Conventional standard and articulated diesel
buses are widely used for BRT operations. There is,
however, a trend toward innovations in vehicle design.
These innovations include (1) “clean” vehicles (e.g., lowsulfur diesel fuel, diesel-electric hybrids, compressed
natural gas [CNG], and possibly fuel cells in the future);
(2) dual-mode (diesel-electric) operations through
tunnels; (3) low-ﬂoor buses; (4) more doors and wider
doors; and (5) use of distinctive, dedicated BRT vehicles.
Details of BRT Features
• ITS : Applications of ITS technologies
include automatic vehicle location systems;
passenger information systems; and transit
preferential treatment systems at signalized
intersections, controlled tunnel or bridge
approaches, toll plazas, and freeway ramps.
• Service Pattern : Service patterns
reflect the types of running way and vehicles
utilized. Many systems provide an “overlay”
of express (or limited-stop) service on top of
all-stop (or local) service and “feeder” bus
line services at selected stations.
Travel Impact Summary of BRT
• Sustainable Transportation & relevant concepts are discussed
• Importance of TDM measures are understood with discussion
of varieties of such measures that help introduce
sustainability in transportation.
• Sustainable transportation is unavoidable; Policy makers need
to completely revamp institutional framework that support
policies to introduce sustainability in transport infrastructure.
• Introduction of BRT and other supporting measures may be
the step forward to introduce sustainability.