Marginalisation and pay differentials in the UK social care sector

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Transcript Marginalisation and pay differentials in the UK social care sector

Marginalisation and pay differentials in the UK social care sector

Dr Shereen Hussein King’s College London

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What is social care?

S Social care supports people of all ages S With needs arising from physical, cognitive or disabilities S Assist in carrying out personal care or domestic routines (activities of daily living). S Helps sustain paid or unpaid work, education, learning, leisure and other social support systems. S Supports people in building social relationships and participating fully in society.

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Why is social care so important?

S Complex interactions of political, economical, sociological and demographic factors S Role of state, society and individuals S S S S S In the forefront of political debates S reforms, big society, mutuals, personalisation etc.

Value of emotional work Duties and responsibilities In the heart of demographic forces Strong business case!

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Formal and informal spheres of care

S Sociology of care S Norms and traditions S Individual, society and government responsibilities S Working with other forms of support (social security, health and housing) S Complement, intersect but do not substitute one another S Interaction with health care

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Marginalisation of the social care as a labour market sector

S Dealing with a special kind of ‘commodity’ S Value of ‘care’ work to the society S Gendered; emotional; for granted !

S Responsibilities and duties of care S The role of the welfare state (means tested) S Assumed or planned S Pricing ‘emotional’ work

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The position of the care sector and labour dynamics

S Secondary labour position S Migrants and BME workers contribution S Pay and working conditions S Possible other rewards S S S Flexibility Satisfaction Stepping stone S S Only job!

Temporarily or continuous

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S Changing structure; place; nature, interaction with health services S Domiciliary, residential S Individual budgets S Links to government funds S Interactions with other markets S Role of the private and voluntary sector

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Characteristics of the care sector

S Means tested, state-funded, less than 12% of users S S S Private sector major supplier of services (75% of services) Different types of settings- with domiciliary care workers accounting for 48% of the workforce Increase policy emphasis on personalisation and user choice S S S Wages are a major cost component Growing demand- high vacancy and turnover rates- almost a recession proof sector No signs of funding reforms!

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Workforce structure

S Gender (80% women), age (mid 40s) and education (minimum skills required) S Migrants and immigration policies S International and local supply S Grey economy and domestic work S Lack/unclarity of career path S Marginalisation within a marginalised sector

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Pay structure

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Marginalisation in pay

S One of the main low paying sectors (LPC) S Before and after the introduction of the NMW S Two tier pay levels; with direct care and ‘other’ workers paid on, below or just above the NMW S ‘Top’ tier includes professional workers (SW, OT ect.) and managers S Pay rates are significantly lower in the private sector and in domiciliary care settings S S Ethnic pay-gaps also exist S BME workers paid lower than white workers after accounting for other factors More people leave care work due to low pay from the private than statutory sector

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Sector effect: hourly pay rate statistics for different job groups working in different sectors, SCWP 6

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Setting effect: hourly pay rate statistics for different job groups working in different settings, SCWP 6

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Investigating pay differentials in the sector

S Using mixed-effect models S Controlling for measured and unobserved factors and cluster effects at different levels of hierarchy S Separate models for different job role groups S Managers/supervisors S S S Ancillary Direct care Professional

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Direct care workers pay differentials

S Significant and large in magnitude effect of individual providers (55% of variance) S Sector variations are large and significant S Large regional effects S Significant fixed effects: S Type of care setting/service type S S S S Ethnicity Interactions between age and setting Interactions between gender and setting Interactions between sector and setting

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Descriptive: Variations in hourly pay of adult direct care workers by some selected individual and employer-level characteristics,

SCWP

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Results of final mixed-effect model of hourly pay of adult direct care workers,

SCWP

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But ..

Available data don’t represent accurate figures

S Data provided by employers (NMDS-SC) S One figure for hourly rate (no indication of ‘enhanced’ rates etc.) S Sector is not very well defined (LFS) S Over represent higher wages and more stable workforce (ASHE) S Unrecorded ‘working’ time S Travel between clients S S Extra work On call – sleep in duties etc.

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Attempt to improve estimates of those paid under NMW

S Combining different data sources S Adjusting for unpaid travel time S Adopt a methodology that maximises the benefit of prior knowledge S Focus only on direct care workers (majority of the workforce)

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Recent estimates and analysis

S Approach S S Sector specific data (provided by employers; NMDS-SC) adjusted by other sources (provided by workers; LoCS survey) Accounting for previously published estimated by the LPC and small surveys (Bayesian approach) S Assumptions S Very small adjustments (average of 22.7 minutes of unpaid work and 4.8 min of travel time per week) S Findings S From (9.2% to 12.9%) or 156,673 to 219,241 ‘direct care’ workers in the UK are paid under the NMW

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Pay distribution of direct care workers

Source: Hussein (2011); SCWP Issue 16

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Posterior distributions of being paid under the NMW

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Risks- what to be aware of

S Pay distributions are borderline with NMW in most cases S S Any unpaid time likely to cause hourly pay rates to move under the NMW Any changes in the NMW rates will have a large impact S Larger numbers of workers are likely to be affected if S S we include ‘other’ workers- 14% of the total workforce we include unreported work; especially through direct payment/personalisation schemes S S Main risk areas for underpaying includes travel time/cost and night shifts Innovative ways to cut costs: S reducing number of staff in shifts; increasing duties of lower paid ranks (care workers to give injections instead of nurses); shorter shifts (forcing some to work extra unpaid time); ‘real time’ shifts by the minutes etc.

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Marginalision Migrant workers

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Migrant workers

S Continue to constitute a considerable part of the workforce S S S S Majority non-EEA migrants (usually with nursing qualifications) Large regional variations Concentrated in certain jobs No large variations in pay levels S Linked to immigration status- minimum wage> NMW S S Usually given ‘harder’ shifts which may pay more, e.g. night/weekend Discrimination S Immigration policies: S Differences between EU and non-EU migrants S Attachment to employer S S S Qualifications Choice and mobility Language

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Experience of racism

S Many experience racism and or discrimination S

Then I noticed some of my colleagues started to, you know, I don’t know kind of my colleagues then so I think I noticed that, you know, people really sometimes they bully especially if you’re a different colour (Site 06, Migrant worker, Asian man 607).

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Most are fine, but some clients can be rude and swear at you they can use racist comments: colour plays a big part. The excuse is often their mental health (Site 01, Migrant worker, black African woman 137).

S S Differential experiences of different ethnic groups S Visible social markers S Being ‘foreign’ The ‘time’ factor Source: Stevens, Hussein and Manthorpe (2012)

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Top nationalities of migrant workers

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Source: Hussein (2011); SCWP Issue 11

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Trends of number of migrant workers (in the care sector) entering the social care sector from 1995-2010 by nationality groups

EEA A8 Source: Hussein (2011); SCWP 12 A2 Non-EEA

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1995 2000 Year started in sector 2005

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2010

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Migrants and pay

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Another Advantage of many migrants

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“...are less likely to quibble and will accept worse conditions than established citizens; getting on with the job and not complaining too much.” (Refugee organisation director)

Source: Hussein, Stevens and Manthorpe 2010

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Next steps

S Examine the profile of those likely to be paid under the NMW S Using sector specific data complemented by other national data S Sector differences S Type of settings S Providers/employers characteristics associated with very low pay S Investigate pay and conditions among workers employed directly by users (personal budgets) S Partnership/collaborative approach S Policy, research and practical knowledge S Understand, educate, regulate and penalise

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References

S S S S S S Hussein, S., Manthorpe. J. and Stevens, M. (2011) The Experiences of Migrant Social Work and Social Care Practitioners in the UK: Findings from an Online Survey. European Journal of Social Work, 14(4): 479-496.

Hussein, S. (2011) ‘Estimating probabilities and numbers of direct care workers paid under the National Minimum Wage in the UK: A Bayesian approach. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 16: December 2011’.

Hussein S. (2011) The contributions of migrants to the English care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 11- February 2011.

Hussein S. (2011) Migrant workers in long term care: evidence from England on trends, pay and profile. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 12- March 2011.

Hussein S., Stevens M. and Manthorpe J. (2010) International Social Care Workers in England: Profile, Motivations, experiences and Future Expectations, February 2010. Final Report.

Stevens, M., Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2012), 'Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project', Ethnicity and Racial Studies. 35(2): 259-280.

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Thank You For Listening Now Your Turn!

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