Chapter 3.3 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By

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Transcript Chapter 3.3 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By

PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Chapter 3.3
Art of India, China, and Japan
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
3.56 Map of Asia: India, China, and Japan
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Introduction
 India, China, and Japan are part of Asia
 Philosophy and religious traditions

Religious pluralism and syncretic (blending two or more belief
systems)

Characteristics often in common:
• Meditation
• Respect for ancestors
• Harmony with nature
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Philosophical and Religious Traditions in Asia
 Buddhism
 Teachings of Buddha
 Acceptance of difficulties
 Desire to attain Enlightenment
 Confucianism
 Based on philosophy of Confucius
 Self-discipline
 Ancestral worship
 Daoism (The Way)
 Based on teachings of Lao Zi
 Balance of opposites
 Harmony with the universe
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Philosophical and Religious Traditions in Asia cont.
 Hinduism
 Reincarnation
 Karma
 Polytheistic
 Islam
 Belief in a single God (Allah)
 Follow the teachings of the Koran
 Shinto (Way of the Gods)
 Belief in Kami (spirits in nature)
 Ancestral worship
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
India
 Peninsula in southern Asia bordered on north by
Himalayas
 One-third the size of the United States
 Stylistic characteristics of art:

Very detailed and elaborate decoration

Emphasis on human body
• Often sensual
• Suggestive of fertility
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Buddhism in Indian Art
 Buddha (The Enlightened One)

Born a prince in Nepal, India

At age 29 became an ascetic

His teachings were spread throughout India after his death

Buddha’s remains buried in eight stupas (burial mounds) marking
important locations in his life
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.57 Great Stupa, third century BCE, enlarged under the Sunga and Andhra Dynasties, c. 150–50 BCE, Sanchi, India
3.58 East gate of Great Stupa, Sanchi, India
3.59 Bodhisattva Padmapani, Cave 1,
Ajanta, India. Cave painting, second
half of 5th century
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Hinduism in Indian Art
 Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, and the
majority of its followers are in India
 Thousands of temples in India, built by centuries of rulers
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.60 Kandariya Mahadeva
temple, c. 1000, Khajuraho,
Madhya Pradesh, India
3.61 Detail of exterior sculpture,
Kandariya Mahadeva temple
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Islam in Indian Art
 Mughals took over India in mid-16th century, and ruled for
centuries
 Commissioned new artworks

Persian artists

Indian artists
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.62 Bichitr, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi
Shaykh to Kings, from the St.
Petersburg album, Mughal Dynasty,
c. 1615–18. Opaque watercolor, gold,
and ink on paper, 18⅞ × 13”. Freer
Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C.
3.63 Taj Mahal, 1631–48, Agra, India
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
To appreciate the astonishing achievement of the Taj Mahal
in more detail, watch:
“The Abode of Paradise”: The Taj Mahal
Click the image above to launch the video
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
China
 Yellow and Yangtze rivers
 Same size as the United States
 Stylistic characteristics of art:

Reveals respect for heritage and ancestral worship

Encourages an inspired meditative state

Generally uniform, symmetrical, and precise
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Chinese Scroll Painting
 The Three Perfections:

Calligraphy

Painting

Poetry
 Hanging or hand scrolls
 Read from right to left
 Should be experienced like a personal journey, not all at
once
 Are often marked with signs of ownership or appreciation
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.64 Wang Meng, Ge Zhichuan Moving
His Dwelling, c.1360. Hanging scroll, ink
and color on paper, 54¾ × 22⅞”. Palace
Museum, Beijing, China
3.65 Zhang Zeduan, Along the River during the Qingming Festival, Northern Song Dynasty, 11th century. Handscroll, ink and color on
silk, 10” × 17’ 3”. Palace Museum, Beijing, China
3.66 Detail of Zhang Zeduan, Along
the River during the Qingming Festival
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Death and the Afterlife
 Ancestral worship
 Fine objects buried with the dead
 Chinese believed dead become supernatural beings
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.67 Ritual wine vessel (guang), late Shang dynasty, c. 1700–1050 BCE. Bronze, 6½ × 3¼ × 8½”. Brooklyn Museum, New York
3.68 Detail from painted banner from
tomb of Lady Dai Hou Fu-ren, Han
Dynasty, c. 168 BCE. Silk. Hunan
Museum, Changsha, China
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Japan
 Country made up of many small islands
 About the same square-footage as California
 Stylistic characteristics of art:

Reveals great reverence for nature
• Japan is vulnerable to tsunamis and earthquakes
• Kami – spirits present everywhere, including in nature

Often asymmetrical and organic

Contemplative to promote meditation
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.69 Sonoko Sasaki, Sea in
the Sky, 2007.Tsumugi-ito
silk thread and vegetable
dyes, 70⅞ × 51¼”.
Collection of the artist
3.70 Sonoko Sasaki at work
at her loom
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The Japanese Tea Ceremony
 Chanoyu (Way of the Tea)

Ritual can take several hours

To find peace, quiet conversation

Rooted in Zen Buddhism – working toward Enlightenment

Tea masters highly trained
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.71 Sen no Rikyu, Taian
teahouse, interior, c. 1582.
Myoki-an Temple, Kyoto, Japan
3.72 Hon’ami Koetsu, Teabowl (called Mount Fuji), Edo period, early 17 th century. Raku ware, 3⅜” high. Sakai Collection, Tokyo,
Japan
3.73 Hungry Tigress, panel from the
Tamamushi Shrine, Horyu-ji Temple,
Nara, Asuka period, c. 650. Lacquer on
wood, shrine 7’7¾” high. Horyu-Ji
Treasure House, Japan
3.74 Scene from the Tale of Genji. Heian period, first half of 12th century. Hand scroll, ink and color on paper, 8⅝ × 18⅞”. Tokugawa
Art Museum, Nagoya, Japan
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Ukiyo-e
 Japanese woodblock prints

Easily reproducible for the masses

Inexpensive
 “Pictures of the floating world”

Capture moments in daily life

From Buddhist belief that life is fleeting
 Scenes include geishas, actors, brothels, landscapes, and
different classes of women
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.75 Kitagawa Utamaro,
Two Courtesans, second
half of 18th century.
Woodblock print, 12⅝ ×
7½”. Victoria and Albert
Museum, London, England
3.76 Mary Cassatt, The Child’s Bath,
1893. Oil on canvas, 39½ × 26”. Art
Institute of Chicago
3.77 Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa”, from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later).
Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
3.78 Yin and yang symbol
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion question
1. In what ways are religion and philosophy reflected in
artworks from Asia? Cite examples from India, China,
and Japan.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion question
2. Humankind’s relationship with nature is a strong element
in many artworks from Asia. Consider the artist’s
interpretation of nature in three artworks introduced in
this chapter.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion question
3. Chinese scroll paintings are a unique kind of artwork.
Discuss the format of a scroll, how it is viewed, and the
skills needed by the artist. How do these characteristics of
scroll paintings differ from other kinds of painting you
have studied?
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion question
4. Religious and political leaders often influence the kinds
and quantities of artworks made in a certain time or
culture. Cite two examples in which a ruler or leader
impacted the art of Asia. What role did he or she play?
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 3.3
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts
By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
Chapter 3.3 Art of India, China, and Japan
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Picture Credits for Chapter 3.3
3.56
Drazen Tomic
3.57
iStockphoto.com
3.58
© Tom Hanley/Alamy
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© Susanna Bennett/Alamy
3.60
© Frédéric Soltan/Sygma/Corbis
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© Pep Roig/Alamy
3.62
Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Purchase F1942.15a
3.63
iStockphoto.com
3.64, 3.65, 3.66 Palace Museum, Beijing
3.67
Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Mr. & Mrs. Alastair B. Martin, the Guennol Collection, 72.163a–b
3.68
Hunan Museum, Changsha
3.69
Courtesy the artist
3.70
Photo Shunji Ohkura
3.71
TRIP photographic library, photographer F. Good/Art Directors
3.72
Sakai Collection, Tokyo
3.73
Horyu-ji Treasure House, Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan
3.74
The Tokugawa Art Museum, Nagoya
3.75
V&A Images/Alamy
3.76
The Art Institute of Chicago, Robert A. Waller Fund, 1910.2
3.77
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, H. Irving Olds collection, LC-DIG-jpd-02018
3.78
iStockphoto.com
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios