PowerPoint - Berry and Associates Spatial Information Systems

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Geotechnology in Transition:

Evolution, Current Practice, Trends and Future Directions

Presentation by

Joseph K. Berry

W.M. Keck Scholar in Geosciences, University of Denver Principal, Berry & Associates // Spatial Information Systems 2000 S. College Ave, Suite 300, Fort Collins, CO 80525 Phone: (970) 215-0825 Email: [email protected]

Website at www.innovativegis.com/basis

Where Are Headed?

This presentation investigates the context, conditions and forces driving the transition from…

― ― ― ―

Maps

to to to

Mapped Data Map Analysis

, ,

Multimedia Mapping

and beyond (

Future Directions

) It does so by first establishing Geotechnology’s Evolution , then describing the duality of current Trends of advancing both descriptive mapping and prescriptive analysis, and finally proposing probable Future that will shake the very foundation of spatial data configuration and utility

PowerPoint posted at

www.innovativegis.com/basis/Present/SWUG09/SWUG09_keynote.ppt

(Berry)

Historical Setting and GIS Evolution

Manual Mapping for 8,000+ years We have been mapping for thousands of years with the primary of navigation through unfamiliar terrain and seas, with emphasis on precise placement of physical features.

…but the last four decades have radically changed the very nature of maps and how they are used—

Computer Mapping

cartographic process

( 70s )

…automates the Where

Spatial Database Management

…links computer mapping with database capabilities

( 80s )

Map Analysis

Where is What

Part 1

…representation of relationships within and among mapped data

( 90s )

Multimedia Mapping

Why and So What

Part 2

…full integration of GIS, Internet and visualization technologies

( 00s )

More

Wow!!!

…did you see that

Part 3

…future directions in Geotechnology

( 10s )

(Berry)

(Nanotechnology)

Geotechnology

(Biotechnology)

Geotechnology

is one of the three "mega technologies" for the 21st century and promises to forever change how we conceptualize, utilize and visualize spatial relationships in scientific research and commercial applications

(U.S. Department of Labor)

Geographic Information Systems (map and analyze) Global Positioning System (location and navigation) Remote Sensing (measure and classify)

GPS/GIS/RS

The Spatial Triad

Mapping

involves precise placement (delineation) of physical features

( graphical inventory ) Where

Descriptive Mapping

Why is and What

Prescriptive Modeling

So What

Modeling

involves analysis of spatial relationships and patterns

( numerical analysis )

(Berry)

Desktop Mapping Framework

(Vector, Discrete)

Click on… Select Theme Zoom Pan Query Builder …identify tall aspen stands Info Tool Theme Table Distance Spatial Table

: Object ID X,Y X,Y X,Y :

Attribute Table

Feature Species : : Object ID Aw : : etc.

Big …over 400,000m 2 (40ha)?

Discrete, irregular map features (objects) Points , Lines and Areas (Berry)

MAP Analysis Framework

(Raster, Continuous)

Click on… Zoom Pan Rotate Display Shading Manager Grid Analysis …calculate a slope map and drape on the elevation surface Continuous, regular grid cells (objects) Points , Lines , Areas and Surfaces Grid Table

: --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, --, 2438 , --, : --, --, --, --,

(Berry)

Part 1

Map Analysis Evolution

(SA and SS)

Traditional GIS Spatial Analysis

Forest Inventory Map •

Points, Lines, Polygons

Discrete Objects

Mapping and Geo-query Traditional Statistics

Minimum= 5.4 ppm Maximum= 103.0 ppm Mean= 22.4 ppm StDEV= 15.5

Mean, StDev (Normal Curve)

Central Tendency

Typical Response (scalar)

Terrain Slope Surface •

Cells, Surfaces

Continuous Geographic Space

Contextual Spatial Relationships Spatial Statistics

Spatial Distribution (Surface) •

Map of Variance (gradient)

Spatial Distribution

Numerical Spatial Relationships

(Berry)

Travel-Time for Our Store to Everywhere

A store’s Travelshed identifies the relative driving time from every location to the store —

…analogous to a “watershed”

Relative scale: 1 = .05 minutes

OUR STORE …close to the store (blue)

(See Location, Location, Location: Retail Sales Competition Analysis , www.innovativegis.com/basis/present/GW06_retail/GW06_Retail.htm) (Berry)

Travel-Time for Competitor Stores

Ocean Our Store (#111) Competitor 3 Ocean Competitor 1 Competitor 4 Ocean Competitor 2 Competitor 5 Ocean Ocean Ocean Travel-Time maps from several stores treating highway travel as four times faster than city streets.

Blue tones indicate locations that are close to a store (estimated twelve minute drive or less). Customer data can be appended with travel-time distances and analyzed for spatial relationships in sales and demographic factors.

(Berry)

Travel-Time Surfaces

(Our Store & Competitor #4)

Blue tones indicate locations that are close to a store (estimated twelve minute drive or less). Increasingly warmer tones form a bowl-like surface with larger travel-time values identifying locations that are farther away. Our Store Competitor

(Berry)

Competition Map

(Our Store & Competitor #4)

The travel-time surfaces for two stores can be compared (subtracted) to identify the relative access advantages throughout the project area. Zero values indicate the same travel-time to both stores (equidistant travel-time) …yellow tones identifying the Combat Zone ; green Our Store advantage; red Competitor #4 advantage Competitor Our Store Our Advantage Positive Negative Competitors

(See Location, Location, Location: Retail Sales Competition Analysis , www.innovativegis.com/basis/present/GW06_retail/GW06_Retail.htm) (Berry)

Map Analysis Evolution

(SA and SS)

Traditional GIS Spatial Analysis

Forest Inventory Map Store Travel-Time (Surface) •

Points, Lines, Polygons

Discrete Objects

Mapping and Geo-query Traditional Statistics

Cells, Surfaces

Continuous Geographic Space

Contextual Spatial Relationships Spatial Statistics

Minimum= 5.4 ppm Maximum= 103.0 ppm

Mean= 22.4 ppm StDev

= 15.5

Mean, StDev (Normal Curve)

Central Tendency

Typical Response (scalar)

Spatial Distribution (Surface) •

Map of Variance (gradient)

Spatial Distribution

Numerical Spatial Relationships

(Berry)

GeoExploration

vs.

GeoScience

“Maps are numbers first, pictures later”

Desktop Mapping

graphically links generalized statistics to discrete spatial objects (Points, Lines, Polygons)— non-spatial analysis (GeoExploration)

Desktop Mapping Data Space Standard Normal Curve

X, Y, Value

Field Data Map Analysis Geographic Space

Point Sampled Data (Numeric Distribution)

Average = 22.0

StDev = 18.7

Discrete Spatial Object 22.0

Spatially Generalized

(Geographic Distribution)

Continuous Spatial Distribution Spatially Detailed

High Pocket

Adjacent Parcels

Map Analysis

map-ematically relates patterns within and among continuous spatial distributions (Map Surfaces)— spatial analysis and statistics (GeoScience) (See Beyond Mapping III, “Epilog”, Technical and Cultural Shifts in the GIS Paradigm , www.innovativegis.com/basis ) (Berry)

Spatial Interpolation

(Spatial Distribution)

The “iterative smoothing” process is similar to slapping a big chunk of modeler’s clay over the “data spikes,” then taking a knife and cutting away the excess to leave a continuous surface that encapsulates the peaks and valleys implied in the original field samples … mapping the Variance (digital slide show SSTAT )

…repeated smoothing slowly “erodes” the data surface to a flat plane

= AVERAGE (Berry)

Visualizing Spatial Relationships

Phosphorous (P)

Geographic Distribution

What spatial relationships do you SEE?

…do relatively high levels of P often occur with high levels of K and N?

…how often?

…where?

(Berry)

Clustering Maps

…groups of “floating balls” in data space identify locations in the field with similar data patterns– data zones

Spatial Data Mining Map surfaces are clustered to identify data pattern groups

Relatively low responses in P, K and N Relatively high responses in P, K and N

Geographic Space Data Space Clustered Data Zones

…other techniques, such as Level Slicing, Similarity and Map Regression, can be used to discover relationships among map layers … map-ematics/statistics (See Beyond Mapping III, “Topic 16”, Characterizing Spatial Patterns and Relationships , www.innovativegis.com/basis) (Berry)

The Precision Ag Process

(Fertility example)

As a combine moves through a field it 1) uses GPS to check its location then 2) checks the yield at that location to 3) create a continuous map of the Steps 1) – 3) yield variation every few feet. This map is 4) combined with soil, terrain and other maps to derive 5) a “Prescription Map” that is used to 6) adjust fertilization levels every few feet in the field (variable rate application).

On-the-Fly Yield Map Map Analysis Farm dB Step 4) Zone 3 Cyber-Farmer, Circa 1992 Zone 2 Zone 1 Prescription Map Step 5) Variable Rate Application Step 6) (See Who’s Minding the Farm , http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/present/GW98_PrecisionAg/GW98_PrecisionAg.htm) (Berry)

Recall that in the beginning we had…

Computer Mapping

automates the cartographic process

( 70s )

Spatial Database Management

mapping with database capabilities

( 80s )

links computer

Mapping and Geo-query

Map Analysis

representation of relationships within and among mapped data

( 90s )

Part 1

Spatial Analysis

(Contextual)

Knock-your-socks-off

Spatial Statistics

(Numerical)

Map-ematics

Part 2

Multimedia Mapping

full integration of GIS, Internet and visualization technologies

( 00s )

Map Delivery/Devices

Map Display

Geospatial Multimedia

Virtual Reality

…4 thrusts driving MMM

(Berry)

Part 2

Multimedia Mapping

1) Map Delivery/Devices

(00’s …now)

2) Map Display Interactive Maps GPS/GIS Enabled Devices and Internet Mapping 3) Geospatial Multimedia Animated Maps 4) Virtual Reality Maps with Integrated

    

Photos Video Audio Text Data Rendered Scenes

(Berry)

3-D Visualization Approaches

(Mega-Trend #4)

Image Draping

- is an established technique in GIS. Draping a topographic or thematic map onto a 3-D terrain surface is effective but relies on abstract colors, shading and symbols. “Map Abstraction”

SportsTracker (MapTrek, 1998)

(Berry)

Landscape Visualization

(Rendering Technique)

“Laying the Carpet” Step 1) 3-D Terrain Surface Step 4) Tree Objects Step 2) Polygon Containers Step 5) Final Composition Step 3) Surface Texture Step 6) Atmospheric Effects “Pouring the Trees” (See Beyond Mapping III, “Topic 12”, Landscape Visualization , www.innovativegis.com/basis) (Berry)

Visualizing Landscape Impacts

(GIS Rendering) Virtual Forest (Innovative GIS Solutions, 1998)

(Berry)

Visualizing Landscape Impacts

(Clear cut)

Virtual Forest (Innovative GIS Solutions, 1998)

(Berry)

Visualizing Landscape Impacts

(Water retention cut)

Virtual Forest (Innovative GIS Solutions, 1998)

(Berry)

Visualizing Landscape Conditions

Virtual Forest (Innovative GIS Solutions, 1998)

…changing the landscape’s carpet and objects to simulate different conditions—

TODAY there is a big difference…

…modern Rendered Scenes approach photographic realism

World Construction Set (3D Nature, 2007)

Forest inventory data establishes tree types , stocking density and maturity —

3D Objects

Summer

(diseased)

Before Fire Winter After Fire …replaces “old pastel colors and abstract symbols”

After Snowfall (ski run)

(Berry)

Part 3

Future Directions

(2010 and beyond)

Future Directions Revisit Analytics (2020s) Multimedia Mapping (2000s) Revisit Geo-reference (2010s) Contemporary GIS Spatial dB Mgt (1980s) GIS Modeling (1990s) The Early Years Mapping focus Data/Structure focus Analysis focus Computer Mapping (1970s)

(See Beyond Mapping III, “Topic 27”, GIS Evolution and Future Trends , www.innovativegis.com/basis) (Berry)

Dominant Driving Forces

(three game changers)

Cloud Computing

(rise of the Netbook)

— a “hosted elsewhere” environment that moves applications, services, and data from local storage to a dispersed set of servers and datacenters

1) it involves

Virtualized Resources

…meaning that workloads are allocated among a multitude of interconnected computers acting as a single device 2) it is

Dynamically Scalable

…meaning that the system can be readily enlarged 3) it acts as a

Service

…meaning that the software and data components are shared over the Internet.

(See Beyond Mapping III, “Topic 27”, GIS Evolution and Future Trends , www.innovativegis.com/basis)

Changes in Our Map Paradigm

(“-ists” and “-ologists”)

differences between the spatial Data/Information describing geographic phenomena and the Knowledge/Wisdom needed for prescribing management action that solve complex spatial problems

Alternative Geographic Referencing

(3D GIS)

a 3-dimensional coordinate system of columns (X), rows (Y), and verticals (Z) defining an imaginary matrix of grid elements, or “voxels,” that are a direct volumetric extension of the “pixels” in a 2D raster image (Berry)

Changes in Our Map Paradigm

(“-ists” and “-ologists”)

Current geotechnology innovation is being driven more and more by users. Innovation —

“a creation, a new device or process resulting from study and experimentation”

—is usually thought of as canonic advancements leading technology and not market-driven solutions following demand

“ user-driven GIS innovation ” … viable solutions require a melding of the minds of— Technology Experts

(“-ists”) and

Domain Experts

(“-ologists”)

GeoExploration GeoScience

…so what is the source of the differences that are taking us beyond mapping?

Second Game Changer (See Beyond Mapping III, “Epilog”, Technical and Cultural Shifts in the GIS Paradigm , www.innovativegis.com/basis ) (Berry)

Spatial Reasoning & Dialog

(Understanding)

Many GIS technologists perceive maps and mapping as precise placement of physical features ( Description of facts — Mapping )

Philosopher’s Progression of Understanding—

Data

(all facts) 

Information

(facts within a context

)

GeoExploration

emphasizes tools for data access and visualization (Data Centric)

Mapping focus Analysis focus

GeoScience

emphasizes tools for analysis of spatial patterns/relationships (Application Centric)

Knowledge

(interrelationships among relevant facts) 

Wisdom

(actionable knowledge)

but many applications deal with “opposing truths” in judgment and view maps as fluid, cognitive drawings

( Prescription of relationships — Analysis ) (Berry)

Spatial Reasoning & Dialog

(Judgment)

Many GIS technologists perceive maps and mapping as precise placement of physical features ( Description of facts — Mapping )

Cognitive Levels of Judgment —

…accounts for individual and collective values in the interpretation of mapped data

Mapping focus Analysis focus

Perception

involves beliefs and preferences based on experience, socialization and culture —development of perspective 

Opinion/Values

implies actionable beliefs that reflect preferences, not universal truths

But many applications deal with opposing “truths” in judgment and sees maps as fluid, cognitive drawings ( Prescription of relationships — Analysis ) (Berry)

Spatial Reasoning & Dialog

(Map Types and Processing)

Many GIS technologists perceive maps and mapping as precise placement of physical features ( Description of facts — Mapping )

Producers Consumers

Mapping focus Analysis focus But many applications deal with opposing “truths” in judgment and sees maps as fluid, cognitive drawings ( Prescription of relationships — Analysis ) (See Beyond Mapping III, “Epilog”, Technical and Cultural Shifts in the GIS Paradigm , www.innovativegis.com/basis ) (Berry)

Geographic Referencing

(Traditional 2D GIS)

Vector

Discrete Spatial Objects (vector) —

Point (X,Y) as fundamental unit

Points, Lines , Areas

Raster

Continuous Surfaces (grid) —

Cell (Col,Row) as fundamental unit

Points, Lines , Areas Surfaces

Third Game Changer

Cartesian Coordinate System

(X, Y, and Z)

both the traditional 2-D map and virtual reality’s 3-D visualization view the earth as a surface—

flattened to a pancake or curved and wrinkled a bit to reflect the surficial topography of an area

(Berry)

Alternative Geographic Referencing

(3D GIS)

Vector

Discrete Spatial Objects (vector) —

Point (X,Y,Z) as fundamental unit

…extremely difficult to extend to 3-dimensional geography as complex equations or facet sets must be used

Raster

Continuous Surfaces (grid) —

Cell (Col,Row,Vertical) as fundamental unit

Points, Lines , Areas, Surfaces and Volumes

Database Referencing System

(Col, Row, and Vertical)

a Geodetic Referencing system (geographic position) used in identifying an “areal extent” in two-dimensions on the earth’s surface can be extended to a Database Referencing system (matrix location) effectively defining a 3 dimensional “project block” —

Col,Row,Vertical (Where) plus Attribute (What)

(See Beyond Mapping III, “Topic 27”, GIS Evolution and Future Trends , www.innovativegis.com/basis) (Berry)

Alternative Grid Elements

(Hexagon and Dodecahedral)

Tightly Clustered Groupings

Continuous Nested Grid Elements

Hexagonal Grid

(6 facets) Square Grid (8 facets)

Hexagon Consistent distances and adjacency to surrounding grid elements Inconsistent distances and adjacency to surrounding grid elements

(Orthogonal and Diagonal)

Dodecahedral

Dodecahedral Grid

(12 facets) Cubic Grid (26 facets)

Square 2D Grid Element

(Planimetric)

Cube 3D Grid Element

(Volumetric)

(Berry)

Where Have We Been?

(and opportunities to go further)

Computer Mapping

(70s)

 

Spatial Db Management

(80s)

Map Analysis/Modeling

(90s)

Multimedia Mapping

(00s)

Future Directions

(10s) PowerPoint posted at …

www.innovativegis.com/basis/Presentations/SWUG09/SWUG09_keynote.ppt

Online book posted at

www.innovativegis.com/basis/MapAnalysis/

www.innovativegis.com/basis

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