Wildland Engine Operations - Part 3

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Transcript Wildland Engine Operations - Part 3

WILDLAND ENGINE OPERATIONS
PART 3 - Exercises
WARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDEN
TRAINING 2008
Group
Exercises
Wildland Engine Operations
Exercise #1
Scenario #1
Fuel Group: Hardwood Timber Litter
Date: September 24, 1600 hours
Weather: Winds are light and variable 5-7 mph.
RH is 28%
Fire Behavior: Flame lengths are 5 ft. at the head of the fire.
Topography: Rolling terrain, negotiable by type 5 engines.
Resources: 2 type 5 engines including yours.
Scenario: You are working an isolated finger of a large fire in
tandem with another type 5 engine. The engine that you have been
working with is currently refilling their tank and is not on scene.
Your engine experiences a major mechanical malfunction and is out
of service.
Given the situation:
1. What contingencies did you have, or should you have had in place
prior to initiating suppression activities?
2. What action do you take as Engine Boss?
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Exercise # 1 Scenario #1 Solution
What contingencies did you have in place
prior to initiating fire suppression
activities?
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Established communication with
necessary personnel.
Establish emergency procedures.
LCES have been established.
Exercise # 1 Scenario #1
Solution Continued.
What do you do?
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Sizeup the situation.
Ensure communications are established.
Alert other fireline personnel.
Ensure safety zones are established and
known to all.
Determine mechanical problem and rectify if
possible.
Wildland Engine Operations
Exercise #2
Scenario #1
Fuel Group: Grass
Date: April 24, 1400 hours
Weather: Winds are out of the southeast 5-10 mph.
RH is 18%
Fire Behavior: Flame lengths are approximately 5 ft. at the head of the fire.
The fire is moving in a northwest direction.
 Topography: Relatively flat terrain.
 Resources: 2 type 7 engines including yours.
 Scenario: The fire is active at the head and is running to the northwest. All
available weather indicators appear that they will remain constant. The fire
is approximately 10-15 acres. Using the available information and any other
resources available, how will you coordinate with the other engine boss to
best deploy your resources? Illustrate on the map and determine the tactics
you will use.
Given the situation:
1. What is the best method of attack?
2. Where should you deploy your resources?
3. What advantages, disadvantages, safety concerns, and special
considerations are associated with your decision?
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Pincer Attack
Wildland Engine Operations
Exercise #2
Scenario #2
Fuel Group: Grass with pockets of brush
Date:May 1, 1200 hours
Weather: Winds are variable out of the southwest with 15-20 mph
gusts.
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RH is 21%
 Fire Behavior: Flame lengths are approximately 6-8 ft. on an uneven
edge caused by pockets of brush. Flame lengths at the heads of the
fire are 12-15 ft. pushed by the predominant winds.
 Topography: Rolling terrain, negotiable by type 6-7 engines.
 Resources: 3 type 6 engines.
 Scenario: The fire is currently 15-20 acres. With the information
given how would you coordinate with other deployed resources to
best attack and suppress the fire? Illustrate on the map and
determine the tactics you will use.
Given the situation:
1. What is the best method of attack?
2. Where should you deploy your resources?
3. What advantages, disadvantages, safety concerns, and special
considerations are associated with your decision?
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Tandem Parallel Attack
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Wildland Engine Operations
Exercise #2
Scenario
#3
Fuel Group: Grass and shrub
Date: May 12, 1100 hours
Weather: Winds are light and variable out of the south/southwest 5-10 mph.
RH is 18%
Fire Behavior: Flame lengths are approximately 4 ft. on the flanks and 6 ft. at the head
of the fire. The fire is active at the head of the fire and on the flanks. The fire is
moving actively through the grasses but not running at an extreme rate.
 Topography: Mildly rolling terrain.
 Resources: You arrive on the scene with your type 5 engine and crew. Also arriving at
the same time are four other engines with crews. They consist of two type 4 engines
and two 2 type 6 engines.
 Scenario: The fire is currently approximately 10-15 acres. The mild and rolling terrain
is accessible by all types of wildland engines. The multiple spread on the flanks and
head of the fire is causing immediate threats to the three closest structures, two single
family residences and a barn. Using the available information and the other resources
available at the scene, how will you coordinate with the other engine crews to best
deploy your resources? Illustrate on the map and determine the tactics you will use.
Given the situation:
1. What is the best method of attack?
2. Where should you deploy your resources?
3. What advantages, disadvantages, safety concerns, and special considerations are
associated with your decision?
Envelopment Inside-Out Attack
Wildland Engine Operations
Exercise #2
Scenario #4
Fuel Group: Grasses and pockets of timber litter
Date: May 5, 1500 hours
Weather: Winds are erratic out of the southwest10-15 mph with gusts to 30.
RH is 17%
Fire Behavior: Flame lengths are approximately 5 ft. on the flanks and 8-10 ft. at the
head of the fire. The fire is active at the head of the fire and on the flanks. The fire is
moving actively (running) through the grasses and timber litter with minor spotting
caused by the erratic winds.
 Topography: Terrain is steep on the west and northwest sides and rolling grass and
brush on the south and southeast sides .
 Resources: You arrive on the scene with your type 4 engine and crew. Also present on
scene are two additional type 4 engines with crews.
 Scenario: The fire is currently approximately 15-20 acres. The fire is accessible by
engines on the south flank. The west and northwest flanks are burning into steep
terrain dominated by timber that will limit access where the terrain becomes steeper.
Using the available information and the other resources available at the scene, how
will you coordinate with the other engine crews to best deploy your resources?
Illustrate on the map and determine the tactics you will use.
Given the situation:
1. What is the best method of attack?
2. Where should you deploy your resources?
3. What advantages, disadvantages, safety concerns, and special considerations are
associated with your decision?
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Combination Attack
Stationary and Tandem
Parallel Attack
WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE
Structure Defense and Safety
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With the increased firefighting activities in the
urban interface, wildland firefighter must become
aware of a new fire environment.
Fire fighters tend to place themselves at greater
risk when battling wildland fires in an effort to
save homes.
REMEMBER…Safety of life is most important and
must be adhered to by the use of the “fire Orders”,
“Watch Out Situations”, and the use of “LCES”.
Safety While Protecting
Structures From Wildland Fire
“ Structures exposed to wildland fires in
the urban interface can and should be
considered as another fuel type. Sizeup and
tactics should be based upon fuels, weather
and topography, just as those criteria
would be applied to a wildland fire”.
(Fireline Handbook Chapter4- Firefighter Safety)
Wildland/Urban Interface
Considerations
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Engine crews are commonly utilized to
protect structures during wildfires.
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Crew that are not familiar with operations
in the wildland/urban interface should not
be assigned structural protection duties.
Triage ?
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The process of
evaluating and
setting priorities for
structures requiring
protection from
approaching
wildfires.
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What are factors that
affect triage
decisions?
Five Triage Factors
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Firefighter Safety
Type and Structural
Condition
Surrounding Fuels
Fire Behavior
Available Resources
Reference: IRPG page 14-17
Triage Categories
1.
2.
3.
Needing “LITTLE
OR NO” protection
for now.
Needing
“PROTECTION”
but “SAVEABLE”.
“INDEFENSIBLE”
Always Remember...
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Back your engine in.
Keep one line for engine
protection.
Keep 100 gallons in reserve.
Continually re-assess
L.C.E.S.
Adhere to electrical power
line safety recommendations.
Wear appropriate PPE for the
assignment.
Don’t exceed your training!
When It Is Time To Withdraw!
Your safety is in jeopardy.
 The fire is making significant runs.
 Spot fires are igniting.
 Your water supply will not allow you to
continue.
 The roof is more then ¼ involved, in
windy conditions.
 Interior rooms are involved and windows
are broken, in windy conditions.
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Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Wooden
construction,
Shake roofs
Reference: IRPG Page 11, FLHB Page 136
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Poor
access,
Narrow oneway roads
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Inadequate
water supply
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Natural
fuels
30 feet or
closer to the
structures
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Extreme
behavior
fire
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Strong
winds,
25 mph plus.
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Evacuation
of
public (panic)
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Structures
located in
chimneys, box
or narrow
canyons, on
slopes of 30% or
more, and in
continuous,
flashy fuel
types.
Structural Situations that Shout
“WATCH OUT”…
 Bridge
limits
load
Group Exercise Scenario
50’
House #1
House #2
Two houses are adjacent, 50 feet apart. House #1 has
wooden walls, a wood-shake roof, and is surrounded on
three sides by brush. House # 2 has better clearance,
grass around the house, and a composition shingle roof.
House #2
House #1
500 gal.
Case 1: The fire is burning only the leaf litter, moving progressively past the two houses. You have a full 500 gallon tank of
water and are the only engine available. What would you do?
Group Exercise Scenario
Case 1 Solution: Control the fire at the first house
it reaches and lead it past the second. Save both
houses.
House #2
House #1
250 gal.
Case 2: The fire is burning the brush, hitting broad-side
and threatening both houses at the same time. You have 250
gallons of water left and are the only engine available. House #1
will receive direct flame impingement; house #2 will receive only
firebrands. What would you do?
Group Exercise Scenario
Case 2 Solution : Forget house #1, it cannot be
saved. Use your limited water to defend house #2.
At least you will save one house. With only 50 feet
between you must consider the exposure problems
created by a fully burning structure (house #1).
Now you are not only defending house #2 from a
wildfire, but from a fully involved structure next
door.
House #2
House #1
500 gal.
5 min. away
Case 3: As in Case 2, the fire is burning the brush and
threatening both houses at the same time. This time you
have a full tank of water, 500 gallons. You can protect house #1
as the fire hits it and in the process will significantly diminish
the intensity at the head of the fire. A second engine will be
there in 5 minutes. What would you do?
Group Exercise Scenario
Case 3 Solution: Take house #1 and do everything
you can to save it. You might be able to
simultaneously deploy a hose line to the second
house and to have a firefighter spend at least some
time on spot fires. House #2 will last until the other
engine arrives. The second engine can handle house
#2 and perhaps even give you a little help too. Save
both houses.
Decision-making Exercise
You are sent into an area with four houses. Burning conditions
are so severe that you can expect the standing live fuels to burn
readily. You have a full tank of water, but no other resources
will be available until well after the fire is past.
The most threatened house (#1) is in heavy
fuels. It would require all your water to save,
and the other houses would be involved by
the time you could be free again.
#2
#3
#4
#1
500 gal.
The second-worst house (#2) is located in
moderately heavy fuels; it would require
half your water and 10 to 20 minutes to
save it.
#2
#3
#4
#1
500 gal.
Houses 3 and 4 are threatened only by
firebrands on the roof. What would you
do?
#2
#3
#4
#1
500 gal.
Decision Making Exercise
Solution: First, consider taking on the most threatened
house. You will save it, but with no time or water left you will
lose the other three.
Next, consider taking on the second house. You will save it,
and there is a good chance you will have time and water to
deal with spot fires on the last two houses. You could save
three.
Finally, consider taking on the easiest two houses. You can
save them easily, but you will lose the other two.
The second alternative will buy you the most; three houses
saved.
THANK YOU!
REMEMBER
SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY!