Interviewer Effects in Face-to-face Surveys

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Transcript Interviewer Effects in Face-to-face Surveys

Interviewer Effects in
Face-to-face Surveys:
A Function of Measurement
Error or Nonresponse?
Brady T. West
Michigan Program in Survey Methodology (MPSM)
Frauke Kreuter
Joint Program in Survey Methodology (JPSM)
Institute for Employment Research (IAB)
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
ITSEW 2011
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Acknowledgements
• Mark Trappmann, Director of the PASS
survey at the IAB, for allowing us to
access and analyze the PASS data
• Ursula Jaenichen and Gerrit Müller from
the IAB, for their tremendous help in
accessing and navigating the various data
sets necessary to conduct this research
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Interviewer Variance: The Problem
• An undesirable product of the data collection
process, given interpenetrated sample designs
• Responses collected by the same interviewer
are more similar than responses collected by
different interviewers (ρint = ICC)
• Estimates vary across interviewers, despite
random assignment of subsamples
• Leads to inflation of variance in survey estimates
(like a design effect) and reduction of power
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Interviewer Variance: The Problem
• ρint generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.10 in
practice, with 80% of values less than 0.02
(Groves and Magilavy, 1986)
• ρint can be larger than within-cluster correlation
in area probability samples (Schnell and Kreuter,
2005; Davis and Scott, 1995)
• Example:
30 cases per interviewer
ρint = 0.01
 An expected increase of 13.6% in the
standard error of an estimated mean
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Interviewer Variance: The Literature
• ρint may arise from correlated deviations of
responses from true values within the same
interviewer (see Groves, 2004; Biemer and
Trewin, 1997; Hansen et al., 1960)
• Possible sources of non-zero ρint values:
– Complex questions (Collins and Butcher, 1982)
– Complex interviewer / respondent interactions
(Mangione et al., 1992)
– Geographic effects in non-interpenetrated designs
(O’Muircheartaigh and Campanelli, 1998)
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Interviewer Variance: The Literature
• Published studies of interviewer variance
frequently report strangely high values of ρint
(0.03 – 0.12) for factual (simple) survey items:
– Age (Kish, 1962, face-to-face)
– Ethnicity (Fellegi, 1964, face-to-face)
– Receipt of a daily newspaper (Freeman and Butler,
1976, face-to-face)
– Present employment (Groves and Kahn, 1979,
telephone)
– Type of school last attended (Collins and Butcher,
1982, face-to-face)
– Many other examples…
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Research Question
• The literature also provides substantial evidence
of interviewer variance in response rates
• One estimates ρint with respondent data only,
ignoring the possible contribution of
nonresponse error variance across interviewers
to intra-interviewer correlations in responses
• West and Olson (2010) suggest that total
interviewer variance for some variables may be
driven by nonresponse error variance, based on
a limited analysis of telephone survey data
• Do we see the same phenomenon in a faceto-face survey, with no case switching?
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The PASS Survey
• Conducted by the IAB in Nuremberg, Germany
• Panel survey using both CAPI and CATI
• Collects labor market, household income, and
unemployment benefit receipt data from a
nationally representative sample of Germans
• Covers 12,000+ households annually
• Two annual samples: recipients of unemployment benefits (UB), general population
• Samples refreshed annually; 4 waves finished
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PASS Data
• Pooled data set of cases attempted using
CAPI from the first two waves of PASS
• CAPI interviewers work one PSU only
• Focus on UB sample cases only (due to
presence of administrative records)
• All cases from Wave 1; only refreshment
cases from Wave 2
• Focus on one-person households only
(Kreuter et al., 2010)
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PASS Data
• HHs without a listed number (15%), HHs not
willing to participate on phone, and HHs
switched from CATI to CAPI due to non-contact
• Variables: welfare benefit recipiency status,
age, gender, foreign status
• n = 2,574 households assigned to 158
interviewers (16.3 per interviewer; only 4.7
respondents per interviewer  power issues)
• NOTE: responses can only be linked to admin
records given consent; prevented calculation of
individual response deviations in this study
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Analytic Approach
• Replicate three-step analysis of West and Olson (2010)
• Estimate (in order):
– Variance in true values among interviewers (sampling)
– Variance in true values for respondents (sampling + NRE)
– Variance in reports for respondents (sampling + NRE + ME)
• Critical assumption: sampling errors, nonresponse
errors, and measurement errors are independent (valid?)
• Variance components estimated using REML or pseudoML estimation using xtmixed and xtmelogit in Stata
• Variance components tested against zero using
asymptotic likelihood ratio tests, with test statistics
referred to mixtures of chi-square distributions
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0
Frequency
Results: Response Rates
0
.2
.4
.6
Unweighted Response Rate
.8
1
2
ˆ int,
0.271
R

 0.076
Estimated ICC of response indicators: ˆint, R  2
ˆ int, R   2 / 3 0.271   2 / 3
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Estimated Variance Components
PASS
Variable
(# Resp.)
Estimated
Variance of
True Values,
Assignments
(ICC)
p-value
Estimated
Variance of
True Values,
Respondents
(ICC)
p-value
Estimated
Variance of
Reports,
Respondents
(ICC)
Age
(n = 744)
2.572
(0.017)
0.014
5.916
(0.038)
Gender
(n = 744)
0.015
(0.005)
0.331
Foreign
(n = 740)
0.718
(0.179)
Receipt
(n = 738)
0.053
(0.016)
p-value
Primary
Variance
Source
0.053
6.440
(0.038)
0.062
NR
Error
(86.5%)
< 0.001
(< 0.001)
1.000
0.060
(0.018)
0.308
---
< 0.001
0.258
(0.073)
0.135
0.518
(0.136)
0.040
Sampling
Error
0.126
0.018
(0.006)
0.468
0.452
(0.121)
0.006
Meas.
Error
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Interpretation of Results
• Age: Evidence of initial sampling variance,
increase in interviewer variance due to
nonresponse error variance, slight increase due
to measurement error variance
• Gender: No evidence of interviewer variance
• Foreign Status: Substantial sampling variance
(expected), differential nonresponse error
attenuates variance (interviewers German
speakers?), slight increase due to ME variance
• Benefit Receipt: No sampling variance, no
added variance from nonresponse error,
substantial measurement error variance
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Conclusions
• First study to consider contributions of
nonresponse error variance and measurement
error variance to total interviewer variance in a
face-to-face setting
• Relative contributions are item-specific:
evidence of nonresponse error variance in age
is consistent with findings of West and Olson
(2010), but response error variance still matters
• Sampling variance due to within-PSU clustering
is not the only source of interviewer variance in
FTF settings (Schnell and Kreuter, 2005)
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ITSEW Discussion Points
• Assumptions about independence of error sources need
further study (consent issue in PASS prevented this)
• Replications in other large FTF surveys, with record data
available, are needed to fully understand the problem
• Interviewer training and monitoring implications
• Current estimators of ρint are inadequate; estimators that
recognize nonresponse error variance (in contacts and
refusals) need development
• Multilevel modeling idea: 1) impute MEs for NR; 2)
examine interviewer variance in intercepts and response
indicator effects when predicting reported values for both
R and NR; 3) estimate covariance of random intercepts
(IWER response errors) and response indicator effects
(IWER nonresponse errors) [Point 1 above]
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Thank You!
• Please direct additional questions,
comments, or paper requests to:
Brady ([email protected]) and/or
Frauke ([email protected])
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