What is Motivation? - DeGroote School of Business

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Transcript What is Motivation? - DeGroote School of Business


Class 4 Motivation Dr. Christa Wilkin

Brain Teasers

B B A A R R knee light light Math The ONCE 4:56pm

Last Class

 A good “fit” between the values of employees and their supervisors and organization enhances job attitudes and behaviours.

 Job Satisfaction affects behaviors not directly related to performance (e.g., absenteeism, OCBs)  Fostering commitment is important


 Theories of motivation and motivation in practice


 Content theories of motivation  Process theories of motivation  Money as a motivator  Job design as a motivator


What is Motivation?

 The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.

 The basic characteristics of motivation:  Effort  Persistence  Direction  Goals

Individual Exercise

 Write a paragraph on what motivates you to work hard at your job? At school?

Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation

 Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task.  Pay, fringe benefits, company policies  Intrinsic motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task    Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, Most jobs have a bit of both rewards BUT Extrinsic rewards can extinguish intrinsic rewards  Question: Why?

Question: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

Need Theories of Work Motivation

 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Alderfer’s ERG Model  McClelland’s Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-actualization: learning, growth, achieving one’s potential, etc.

Esteem: self-respect, recognition, etc.

Belongingness: acceptance, friendship Safety needs: no physical or emotional harm Physiological needs: air, water, food,

Alderfer’s ERG Model

 A three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy.

 Does not assume that a lower-level need must be gratified before a less concrete need becomes operative.

McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs

   Need for achievement: want to accomplish goals through their own efforts, win Need for affiliation: seek approval, conform, avoid conflict and confrontation Need for power: desire to control people and resources

Process Theories of Work Motivation

 Motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs.

 Three important process theories:  Expectancy theory  Equity theory  Goal setting theory

Expectancy Theory

 1.

Based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes Effort-to-performance Outcome 1 2.

Performance-to-expectancy 3.

Valence Effort Performance Outcome 2 Outcome 3

Effort-to-performance (E to P)

 Will the effort lead to a good performance?

 Probability (i.e., from 0 to 1)  e.g., believing that you have the capacity to meet a sales quota  Question: How would you increase this?

Effort Performance

Performance-to-outcome (P to O)

 Will a good performance lead to organizational rewards? (e.g., bonus, promotion, recognition, etc.)  Probability (between 0 and 1)  e.g., believing that meeting your sales quota will lead to a promotion  Question: How would you increase this?

Performance Outcome 1

Outcome Valence (O)

 Will the rewards be valued?  Negative or positive, unlimited range.

 Related to how well the outcome meets needs and drives  e.g., whether a promotion is something that you value  Question: How would you increase this?

Outcome 1

Quiz Question

According to the expectancy theory of motivation, if we find that workers feel that they are unable to perform at a high level, we are dealing with a problem of: A) second-level outcomes B) Performance-to-outcome C) Outcome valence D) Relatedness E) Effort-to-performance

Equity Theory

 Discussed this last class My outcomes = Other’s outcomes My inputs Other’s inputs  Inputs: quality of work performed, job knowledge, cooperation with others, experience, education  Outputs: Pay, amount of work, status, possibility of growth

Goal-Setting Theory

 The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance  Stretches the intensity and persistence of effort  Employees know what is expected so they can focus their efforts more efficiently  NOT just saying to people “do your best!”  “I will do my best” is not a specific goal  An extrinsic reward is NOT given for completion.

Group Exercise

 Form groups of 5 to 6  Discuss the individual paragraphs that you wrote before on what motivates you to work hard  Apply some of the theories that you learned to what motivates you  E.g., Are you intrinsically or extrinsically motivated?

 E.g., Which needs category do you fall in Maslow’s pyramid?  E.g., Are you more motivated by achievement, affiliation, or power?

 Be prepared to report your results back to the class



Armed Forces Video Clip

 Motivation in a tough job


 How effective is pay as a motivator?

Money as a Motivator

 Pay can satisfy lower-level needs as well as social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs so it should be a good potential motivator (ties in with needs theories).

 If pay can satisfy a variety of needs, it should be highly valent and it should be a good motivator to the extent that it is clearly tied to performance (ties in with process theories).

 Pay may well be the most important and effective motivator of performance.

Job Design as a Motivator

 The goal of job design is to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs.

 An attempt to capitalize on intrinsic motivation.

The Job Characteristics Model

Skill Variety

 The opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents.

 E.g., A professor teaches, conducts research, and performs service to the university


 The freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures.

 E.g., telemarketer

Task Significance

 The impact that a job has on other people.

 E.g., The time that I worked at emerg as SARS Screener

Task Identity

 The extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end.

 E.g., the wing vs. a bolt of an airplane


 Information about the effectiveness of one’s work performance.

 E.g., Make pizza: toppings are in place, cooked, pieces are cut straight

Quiz Question

Veronica doesn't feel responsible for the outcomes of her work. According to Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model, which core job characteristic is low?

A) Task identity B) Skill variety C) Feedback D) Task significance E) Autonomy

The Job Characteristics Model

Critical Psychological States

 Jobs that are higher on the core job characteristics are instrinsically motivating and have more motivating potential because of their effect on three psychological states:  Experienced meaningfulness of the work  Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work  Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities

Critical Psychological States

 Jobs that are high on skill variety, task significance, and task identity are perceived as more meaningful.

 Jobs that are high on autonomy provide for greater responsibility for work outcomes.

 Jobs that are high on feedback provide workers with knowledge of the results of their work activities.

The Job Characteristics Model


 The presence of the critical psychological states leads to a number of outcomes that are relevant to both the individual and the organization:  High intrinsic motivation  High-quality productivity  Satisfaction with higher-order needs  General satisfaction with the job  Reduce absenteeism and turnover

The Job Characteristics Model


 Three moderator or contingency variables intervene between job characteristics and outcomes:  Job-relevant knowledge and skill of the worker  Weak knowledge, job may be demanding  Growth need strength: the extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need satisfaction  “Context” satisfactions  People less satisfied with pay, supervision, policies, less responsive to challenging work

Research Support

 Research is generally supportive of the basic prediction of the model.

 Workers respond more favourably to jobs that are higher in motivating potential.

 One study found that job characteristics predicted absenteeism up to 6 years after the job characteristics were assessed.

Job Enrichment

 The design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement.

 Job enrichment involves increasing the motivating potential of jobs via the arrangement of their core job characteristics.

Job Involvement

 A cognitive state of psychological identification with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total self-image.

 All of the core job characteristics are positively related to job involvement.

 Employees who are more involved in their job have higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and are less likely to consider leaving their organization.

Job Enrichment Procedures

 Many job enrichment schemes include the following:  Combining tasks  Assigning tasks that might be performed by different workers to a single individual.

 Establishing internal and external client relationships  Putting employees in touch with people who depend on their products and services within or outside the organization  Reducing supervision or reliance on others  Increasing autonomy or control one has over their own work  Forming work teams  Making feedback more direct with customers


 What are potential problems with job enrichment?

Job Enrichment

 Poor diagnosis  Without a careful diagnosis of the needs of the organization and particular jobs in question  Lack of desire or skill  Some workers do not desire enriched jobs  Demand for rewards  Often expect greater extrinsic rewards, such as pay, to accompany their redesigned jobs  Union and supervisory resistance  Job enrichment might “disenrich” the supervisor’s job

Management by Objectives

 The MBO process involves:  The manager meets with individual workers to develop and agree on employee objectives  There are periodic meetings to monitor employee progress in achieving objectives  An appraisal meeting is held to evaluate the extent to which the agreed objectives have been achieved  The MBO cycle is repeated  Research evidence shows clear productivity gains associated with MBO

Alternative Working Schedules as Motivators

 The purpose is to meet diverse workforce needs and promote job satisfaction.

 Alternative working schedules can facilitate recruitment and reduce absenteeism and turnover

Alternative Working Schedules

 Flex-time: arrival and quitting times are flexible  Compressed work week: work fewer than normal 5 days a week but still put in normal # of hours per week  Job-sharing: two part-time employees divide the work of a full-time job  Tele-commuting: work at home but stay in tough with their offices through communications technology

Make Things Fun as Motivator

 The Fun theory  Video clip of piano stairs

Group Exercise Case Incident

 Form groups of 5 to 6 people  Read the case incident “The Junior Accountant”  Answer the three questions  Be prepared to report back to the class


 There are a number of needs (the what) and process (the how) theories to help us manage  Money may be the most important motivator but it is not the only motivator  Enrich and modify job through design

For Next Class

 Read chapter 7 on groups and teamwork  Bring laptop if you have one