Unit 4: Biological Diversity of Plants and Animals

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Transcript Unit 4: Biological Diversity of Plants and Animals

Unit 5 Review
The Evolutionary History of
Biological Diversity
Not Complete!! (Nothing on plants yet)
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The “RNA World” and the Dawn of Natural Selection
• The first genetic material
– Was probably RNA, not DNA
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• RNA molecules called ribozymes have been
found to catalyze many different reactions,
including
– Self-splicing
– Making complementary copies of short
stretches of their own sequence or other short
pieces of RNA
Ribozyme
(RNA molecule)
3
Template
Nucleotides
Figure 26.5
Complementary RNA copy
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5
5
• The oldest known fossils are stromatolites
– Rocklike structures composed of many layers
of bacteria and sediment
– Which date back
3.5 billion years ago
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Chapter 27
Prokaryotes
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• A phylogeny of some major prokaryote
taxa based on molecular systematics:
Domain
Archaea
Domain Bacteria
Proteobacteria
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Universal ancestor
Domain
Eukarya
Archaea
• Archaea share
certain traits with
bacteria
– And other
traits with
eukaryotes
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Some “Extremophile” Archaea
• Extreme thermophiles thrive in…
– very hot environments
Figure 27.1
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Chemical Recycling
• Prokaryotes play a major role
– In the continual recycling of chemical
elements between the living and nonliving
components of the environment
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Symbiotic Relationships
• Many prokaryotes
– Live with other organisms in symbiotic
relationships such as mutualism and
commensalism
Aren’t my symbiotic bacterial
headlights cool?
Figure 27.15
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Chapter 28
Protists
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Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution
• Evidence supports endosymbiosis as an origin
of eukaryote diversity:
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• Traditional …… and …… alternative hypotheis:
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Euglenozoa
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Ancestral eukaryote
•Note connections for fungi, plantae, & anamalia
•Arrows indicate probable instances of endosymbiosis
Plants
Charophyceans
(Opisthokonta)
Chlorophytes
Red algae
Metazoans
Choanoflagellates
Plantae
Chlorophyta
Rhodophyta
Animalia
Fungi
Amoebozoa
Fungi
Cellular slime molds
Plasmodial slime molds
Entamoebas
Gymnamoebas
Radiolarians Radiolaria
Cercozoa
Stramenopila
Foraminiferans
Chlorarachniophytes
Brown algae
Golden algae
Diatoms
Oomycetes
Ciliates
Apicomplexans
Dinoflagellates
Euglenids
Kinetoplastids
Parabasalids Parabasala
Diplomonads Diplomonadida
Alveolata
(Viridiplantae)
ALMOST sexual reproduction…
CONJUGATION AND REPRODUCTION
1 Two cells of compatible
mating strains align side
by side and partially fuse.
2 Meiosis of micronuclei
produces four haploid
micronuclei in each cell.
3 Three micronuclei in each cell
disintegrate. The remaining micronucleus in each cell divides by mitosis.
MEIOSIS
4 The cells swap
one micronucleus.
Macronucleus
Compatible
mates
Haploid
micronucleus
Diploid
micronucleus
Diploid
micronucleus
MICRONUCLEAR
FUSION
5 The cells
separate.
9 Two rounds of cytokinesis
partition one macronucleus
and one micronucleus
into each of four daughter cells.
8 The original macronucleus disintegrates.
Four micronuclei
become macronuclei,
while the other four
remain micronuclei.
7 Three rounds of
mitosis without
cytokinesis
produce eight
micronuclei.
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6 Micronuclei fuse,
forming a diploid
micronucleus.
Key
Conjugation
Reproduction
Sexual
reproduction
almost certainly
evolved in the
protists
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Clade Viriplantidai
• Most chlorophytes have complex life cycles
– sexual and asexual reproductive stages
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• Phyla of two animal phyla, Cnidaria and
Porifera, appear first.
Early
Paleozoic
era
(Cambrian
period)
Millions of years ago
542
Late
Proterozoic
eon
Figure 26.17
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Arthropods
Molluscs
Annelids
Brachiopods
Chordates
Echinoderms
Cnidarians
500
Sponges
– The rest appear suddenly in the Cambrian
Chapter 32
An Introduction to Animal
Diversity
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Welcome to Your Kingdom
• Animals (except the sponges) are…
– multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with
tissues that develop from embryonic layers
Figure 32.1
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Early Embryonic Development
1 The zygote of an animal
undergoes a succession of mitotic
cell divisions called cleavage.
2 Only one cleavage
stage–the eight-cell
embryo–is shown here.
3 In most animals, cleavage results in the
formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula.
The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of cells.
Blastocoel
Cleavage
Cleavage
6 The endoderm of
the archenteron develops into the tissue
lining the animal’s
digestive tract.
Zygote
Eight-cell stage
Blastula
Cross section
of blastula
Blastocoel
Endoderm
5 The blind pouch
formed by gastrulation, called
the archenteron,
opens to the outside
via the blastopore.
Ectoderm
Gastrula
Gastrulation
Blastopore
Figure 32.2
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4 Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of
the embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands,
and eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic
tissues: the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer).
• The common ancestor of living animals
– May have lived 1.2 billion–800 million years ago
– May have resembled modern choanoflagellates,
protists that are the closest living relatives of
animals
Single cell
Stalk
Figure 32.3
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Cleavage
• In protostome development
– Cleavage is spiral and determinate
• In deuterostome development
– Cleavage is radial and indeterminate
Protostome development
Deuterostome development
(examples: molluscs, annelids,
arthropods)
(examples: echinoderms,
chordates)
Eight-cell stage
Spiral and determinate
Eight-cell stage
Radial and indeterminate
Figure 32.9a
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(a) Cleavage. In general, protostome
development begins with spiral,
determinate cleavage.
Deuterostome development is
characterized by radial, indeterminate
cleavage.
Coelom Formation
Protostomes:
Deuterostomes:
Coelom
Archenteron
Coelom
Mesoderm
Mesoderm
Blastopore
Schizocoelous: solid
masses of mesoderm
split and form coelom
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Enterocoelous:
folds of archenteron
form coelom
Arthropoda
Nematoda
Rotifera
Annelida
“Radiata”
“Porifera”
Deuterostomia
Lophotrochozoa
Bilateria
Eumetazoa
Metazoa
Figure 32.11
Mollusca
Nemertea
Platyhelminthes
Ectoprocta
Phoronida
Brachiopoda
Chordata
Echinodermata
Cnidaria
Ctenophora
Silicarea
Calcarea
• newer animal
phylogeny
based mainly
on molecular
data
Ancestral colonial
flagellate
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Ecdysozoa
Chapter 33
Invertebrates
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Chordata
Echinodermata
Other bilaterians (including
Nematoda, Arthropoda,
Mollusca, and Annelida)
Porifera
Cnidaria
• A review of animal phylogeny
Deuterostomia
Bilateria
Eumetazoa
Ancestral colonial
choanoflagellate
Figure 33.2
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Phylum Porifera
• Sponges are suspension feeders
– Capturing food particles suspended in the
water that passes through their body
5 Choanocytes. The spongocoel
is lined with feeding cells called
choanocytes. By beating flagella,
the choanocytes create a current that
draws water in through the porocytes.
Azure vase sponge (Callyspongia
plicifera)
4 Spongocoel. Water
passing through porocytes
enters a cavity called the
spongocoel.
3 Porocytes. Water enters
the epidermis through
channels formed by
porocytes, doughnut-shaped
cells that span the body wall.
2 Epidermis. The outer
layer consists of tightly
packed epidermal cells.
Figure 33.4
Flagellum
Choanocyte
Collar
Osculum
Phagocytosis of
food particles
Spicules
Water
flow
1 Mesohyl. The wall of this
simple sponge consists of
two layers of cells separated
by a gelatinous matrix, the
mesohyl (“middle matter”).
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Amoebocyte
6 The movement of the choanocyte
flagella also draws water through its
collar of fingerlike projections. Food
particles are trapped in the mucus
coating the projections, engulfed by
phagocytosis, and either digested or
transferred to amoebocytes.
7 Amoebocyte. Amoebocytes
transport nutrients to other cells of
the sponge body and also produce
materials for skeletal fibers (spicules).
Phylum Cnidaria
• There are two variations on this body plan
– The sessile polyp and the swimming medusa
Polyp
Medusa
Mouth/anus
Tentacle
Gastrovascular
cavity
Gastrodermis
Mesoglea
Body
stalk
Epidermis
Tentacle
Mouth/anus
Figure 33.5
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Bilateral Animals
• The vast majority of animal species belong to
the clade Bilateria
– Which consists of animals with bilateral
symmetry and triploblastic development
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Phylum Platyhelminthes - Turbellaria
• The best-known turbellarians, commonly called
planarians
– Have light-sensitive eyespots and centralized
nerve nets
Digestion is completed within
gastrovascular cavity, which has
the cells lining the
Pharynx. The mouth is at the
tip of a muscular pharynx that
extends from the animal’s
ventral side. Digestive juices
are spilled onto prey, and the
pharynx sucks small pieces of
food into the gastrovascular
cavity, where digestion continues.
three branches, each with
fine subbranches that provide an extensive surface area.
Undigested wastes
are egested
through the mouth.
Gastrovascular
cavity
Eyespots
Figure 33.10
Ganglia. Located at the anterior end
Ventral nerve cords. From
of the worm, near the main sources
of sensory input, is a pair of ganglia,
dense clusters of nerve cells.
the ganglia, a pair of
ventral nerve cords runs
the length of the body.
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- Lophotrochozoa Clade; Pylum Mollusca
Nephridium. Excretory organs
called nephridia remove metabolic
wastes from the hemolymph.
Heart. Most molluscs have an open circulatory
system. The dorsally located heart pumps
circulatory fluid called hemolymph through arteries
into sinuses (body spaces). The organs of the
mollusc are thus continually bathed in hemolymph.
The long digestive tract is
coiled in the visceral mass.
Visceral mass
Coelom
Intestine
Gonads
Mantle
Mantle
cavity
Stomach
Shell
Radula
Anus
The nervous
system consists
of a nerve ring
around the
esophagus, from
which nerve
cords extend.
Gill
Foot
Nerve
cords
Esophagus
Figure 33.16
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Mouth
Mouth
Radula. The mouth
region in many
mollusc species
contains a rasp-like
feeding organ
called a radula. This
belt of backwardcurved teeth slides
back and forth,
scraping and
scooping like a
backhoe.
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Phylum Arthropoda:
• Molecular evidence
now suggests
– living arthropods
consist of four
major lineages
that diverged early
in the evolution of
the phylum
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Table
33.5 Cummings
Cheliceriforms – Phylum Arthropoda
• Most modern cheliceriforms are arachnids
– A group that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks,
and mites
50 µm
(a) Scorpions have pedipalps that are pincers (b) Dust mites are ubiquitous scavengers in (c) Web-building spiders are generally
specialized for defense and the capture of
human dwellings but are harmless except
most active during the daytime.
food. The tip of the tail bears a poisonous
to those people who are allergic to them
stinger.
(colorized SEM).
Figure 33.31a–c
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Insecta – Phylum Arthropoda
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Crustaceans – Phylum Arthropoda
• Planktonic crustaceans are primary consumers
in many food chains
– (a) copopods (among the most numerous animals)
– (b) krill
(b) Planktonic crustaceans
known as krill are
consumed in vast
quantities by whales.
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Table 33.6
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Sea Stars – Phylum Echinodermata
• Sea stars, class Asteroidea
– Have multiple arms radiating from a central
disk
• The undersurfaces of the arms
– Bear tube feet, each of which can act like a
suction disk
Figure 33.40a
(a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)
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Chapter 34
Vertebrates
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Derived Characters of Chordates
• All chordates share a set of derived characters
– Although some species possess some of these
traits only during embryonic development
Dorsal,
hollow
nerve cord
Muscle
segments
Brain
Notochord
Mouth
Anus
Figure 34.3
Muscular,
post-anal tail
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Pharyngeal
slits or clefts
Mammalia
(mammals)
Reptilia
(turtles, snakes,
crocodiles, birds)
Amphibia
(frogs, salamanders)
Dipnoi
(lungfishes)
Actinistia
(coelacanths)
Actinopterygii
(ray-finned fishes)
Chondrichthyes
(sharks, rays, chimaeras)
Cephalaspidomorphi
(lampreys)
Myxini
(hagfishes)
Cephalochordata
(lancelets)
Urochordata
(tunicates)
Echinodermata
(sister group to chordates)
Chordates
Craniates
Vertebrates
Gnathostomes
Osteichthyans
Lobe-fins
Tetrapods
Amniotes
Milk
Amniotic egg
Legs
Derived
Characters of
Chordates
Lobed fins
Lungs or lung derivatives
Jaws, mineralized skeleton
Vertebral column
Cranium
Brain
Notochord & more
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deuterostome
Follow along on
your own copy of
this cladogram
Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord
• The dorsal nerve cord
– Develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls
into a tube dorsal to the notochord
– Develops into the central nervous system: the
brain and the spinal cord
Ectoderm
Notochord
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• Gene expression in lancelets nervous system
development is representative of that in vertebrates.
BF1
Otx
Hox3
Nerve cord of lancelet
embryo
BF1
Hox3
Otx
Brain of vertebrate embryo
(shown straightened)
Midbrain
Figure 34.6
Forebrain
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Hindbrain
Hagfishes
• The least derived craniate lineage that still
survives
– Is class Myxini, the hagfishes
Slime glands
Figure 34.9
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Derived Characters of Gnathostomes
• Gnathostomes (“jaw-mouth”)
– have jaws evolved from
skeletal supports of the
pharyngeal slits
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Figure 34.13
Gill slits
Cranium
Mouth
Skeletal rods
The Origin of Tetrapods
• In one lineage of lobe-fins
– The fins became progressively more limb-like
while the rest of the body retained adaptations
for aquatic life
Bones
supporting
gills
Figure 34.19
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Tetrapod
limb
skeleton
Amphibians
• The tetrapod class Amphibia
– about 4,800 species
– moist skin complements lungs in gas exchange
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• Amphibian means “___ life”
– A reference to the metamorphosis of an
aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult
(b) The tadpole is
an aquatic
herbivore with
a fishlike tail and
internal gills.
(a) The male grasps the female, stimulating her to
release eggs. The eggs are laid and fertilized in
water. They have a jelly coat but lack a shell and
Figure 34.22a–c would desiccate in air.
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(c) During metamorphosis, the
gills and tail are resorbed, and
walking legs develop.
• Amniote clade:
– tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg
– living members are
• reptiles, including birds
• mammals
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Extraembryonic membranes
Allantois. The allantois is a disposal
sac for certain metabolic wastes produced by the embryo. The membrane
of the allantois also functions with
the chorion as a respiratory organ.
Chorion. The chorion and the membrane of the
allantois exchange gases between the embryo
and the air. Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse
freely across the shell.
Amnion. The amnion protects
the embryo in a fluid-filled
cavity that cushions against
mechanical shock.
Yolk sac. The yolk sac contains the
yolk, a stockpile of nutrients. Blood
vessels in the yolk sac membrane transport
nutrients from the yolk into the embryo.
Other nutrients are stored in the albumen (“egg white”).
Embryo
Amniotic cavity
with amniotic fluid
Yolk (nutrients)
Albumen
Shell
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Early Evolution of Mammals
• Mammals
evolved from
synapsids
– In the late
Triassic
~200 mya
Saurischians
Dinosaurs
Lepidosaurs
Archosaurs
Diapsids
Synapsids
Reptiles
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Ancestral
amniote
• Phylogenetic relationships of mammals
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• Anthropoid fossils,
about 45 million
years old
– Indicate that
tarsiers are most
closely related to
anthropoids
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• Hominoids, informally called apes
– branched from old world monkeys 25-35 mya.
(a) Gibbons, such as this Muller's gibbon, are
found only in southeastern Asia. Their very
long arms and fingers are adaptations for
brachiation.
(b) Orangutans are shy, solitary apes that live in the rain
forests of Sumatra and Borneo. They spend most of
their time in trees; note the foot adapted for grasping
and the opposable thumb.
Figure 34.40a–e
(d) Chimpanzees live in tropical Africa. They
feed and sleep in trees but also spend a
great deal of time on the ground. Chimpanzees
are intelligent, communicative, and social.
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(e) Bonobos are closely
related to chimpanzees
but are smaller. They
survive today only in the
African nation of Congo.
(c) Gorillas are the largest apes: some
males are almost 2 m tall and weigh
about 200 kg. Found only in Africa, these
herbivores usually live in groups of up to
about 20 individuals.
Australopiths
• Australopith hominids
lived between 4 & 2 mya
– ex: “Lucy”
– Some species walked
fully erect
– Human-like hands and
teeth
– Oldest evidence of tool
use—cut marks on
animal bones
• Is 2.5 mya
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Early Homo
• The earliest fossils in our genus, Homo,
– Are those of the species Homo habilis, ranging
in age from about 2.4 to 1.6 mya
• Stone tools have been found with H. habilis
– species name means “handy man”
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• Homo ergaster
– Was the first fully
bipedal, largebrained hominid
– Existed between 1.9
and 1.6 million years
– The Turkana boy
Figure 34.43
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• Homo erectus
– Originated in Africa approximately 1.8 million
years ago
– Was the first hominid to leave Africa
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Homo sapiens
• Homo sapiens
– Appeared in Africa at least 160,000 years ago
Figure 34.44
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