CHAPTER 4 The Financial Environment: Markets, Institutions, and

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Transcript CHAPTER 4 The Financial Environment: Markets, Institutions, and

CHAPTER 2
The Financial Environment:
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Outlines
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Financial Markets
Financial Institutions
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The Capital Flow Process
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In a well-functioning economy, capital flows
efficiently from those who supply capital to
those who demand it.
Suppliers of capital – individuals and
institutions with “excess funds.” These
groups are saving money and looking for a
rate of return on their investment.
Demanders or users of capital – individuals
and institutions who need to raise funds to
finance their investment opportunities.
These groups are willing to pay a rate of
return(interest) on the capital they borrow.
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Three ways capital flow from savers to
borrowers?
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Direct transfer
Investment Bank
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Securities pass through the investment
bank
Financial intermediary
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Intermediary create new securities for
savers.
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What is a market
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Market: A place/venue where goods
and services are exchanged
FM: A place where funds/financial
assets are traded.
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lender: those with surplus of funds
(individual, firms, Gov.)
borrower: those need funds ( individual,
households, firms)
Who are lender/borrower: stock M, bond4-4M
Types of financial markets
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Money vs. Capital
Primary vs. Secondary
Spot vs. Futures
Public vs. Private
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FM
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F Asset /F instruments: contracts specifying borrowing/lending terms,
claims on real assets
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Money M (borrowed for less than 1 Y) and Capital M (1 Y or
longer)
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Primary M and secondary M
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PM: New issues are sold to the public
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SM: outstanding issues traded among investors
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Private M vs. Public
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Private: transactions between two parties
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Public: standardized contracts traded on exchanges.
iv. Spot M vs. Future M
1. SM: transaction “on-the-spot”
2. FM: Contract specifying terms of future trading
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Types of Financial Institutions
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Banks
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Commercial banks
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Investment banks
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Middleman between savers and borrowers
An organization that helps to sell new investment
securities (bonds, stocks).
Financial services corporations
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A firm that offers a wide range of financial
services, including investment banking,
commercial banking, brokerage and insurances.
Citi, B of A, JPM
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Types of Financial Institutions
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Funds-pool money to invest
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Mutual funds
Pension funds-retirement plans
Hedge funds
Exchange traded funds-ETF
Other financial institutions
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Life Insurance companies: Collect premiums and
invest
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Private equity:
company
borrows money to invest/mange the whole
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The stock market
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Types of stock market transactions
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The secondary market
The primary market:
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IPO market: Initial Public Offering
additional new shares
Basics of stock market and stock
investing
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