Transcript Calicivirus Presentation
• Family Caliciviridae Genus Vesivirus; species: swine Lagovirus; species: Rabbit hemorrhagic symptoms.
Norovirus; species: Norwalk Sapovirus; species: Sapporo • Found in humans, rabbits, cattle, pigs, cats, chickens, reptiles, dolphins, sea lions, walruses, foxes, etc.
• Single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped virus.
• Not very well studied because they do not grow in culture and there’s no suitable animal model. • Transmission is generally by the fecal-oral route, but can also be transmitted via the respiratory route.
• Vaccinations reduce the appearance of clinical signs and
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Highly infectious High degree of genomic plasticity RNA polymerase poor ability to proofread resulting in mutations Virus responds rapidly to selected pressures in the environment making it a very adaptable virus Replicates in the oral and respiratory tissues
• Worldwide distribution • Direct contact is the main method of infection. • Shed in oronasal and conjunctival secretions • Transmitted indirectly via contamination of the environment • Incubation period of 2-6 days • Shed the virus for 2 to 3 weeks • Persists in the environment for several days to weeks, and in some cases up to a year or more, depending on environmental conditions
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Common Clinical Signs:
Lingual and Oral ulcers Sneezing Clear nasal discharge Fever Anorexia Salivation Inflammation and Irritation of the nasal tissue and oral cavity Lameness • • •
Severe Clinical Signs:
Pneumonia - difficulty breathing Depression Coughing • • • • • • • • • • •
Signs of Virulent Systemic Disease:
Cutaneous edema Ulcerative lesions on the skin/paws Crusted lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyes and footpads Alopecia Jaundice Respiratory distress Bruising Epistaxis – nose bleeds Bloody feces Multi-organ failure Death
Supportive Treatment IV or subcutaneous fluids Special diet and appetite Stimulants Tube feeding Broad spectrum Antibiotics Mucolytics NSAIDS Corticosteroids Dental cleaning and tooth extractions Antiviral Therapy Ribavirin Feline Interferon Immunoglobulins
• Calicivirus causes respiratory symptoms that usually heal within 2-3 weeks • Most clear the virus from their systems within 30 days • Some remain persistently infected, and will continue to shed the virus • On rare occasions a highly virulent strain of calicivirus can progress to a systemic form
• Part of the core vaccination protocol suggested for cats • Recommended at 8-9 weeks and 12 weeks of age • Some kittens may need a third booster at 16 wks (high risk situation) • Adult cats of unknown immune status should also be vaccinated (booster 2-4 weeks later) • Herpes virus vaccination • Nearly impossible to avoid a cat contracting this disease at some point
• 2009 study by Jas et al.
• Tested 8-9 week old kittens known to be pathogen free by challenge 1 week and 3-4 weeks after vaccination of an inactivated FCV vaccine • Efficacy of the vaccination was comparable whether challenged 1 week or 3-4 weeks after vaccination • Concluded the onset of protection occurred within 7 days of vaccination
• • • • • • Novel Calicivirus in Michigan (MRCV) Hemorrhage, hepatic necrosis and sudden death Highly susceptible = Domestic rabbits and free-ranging European rabbits Unaffected = cottontail and hares Jan. 2001 - New Zealand White rabbitry, 65/200, 32.5% fatality MRCV distinct species from RHDV
• 1977 study by Prato et al. • Tested 3 populations of wild foxes for the presence of neutralizing antibody to 4 different calicivirus strains • Neutralizing activity was detected in serum from 2 of the 3 populations
• 1985, Rogue Reef off Oregon coast - first isolation • Transmission from marine to terrestrial species • Tagging operation led to isolation • Impact on species not assessed however these disease agents causes: Vesicular lesions Abortion Encephalitis Pneumonia
• Commonly cause acute gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea • Virus multiplies within the small intestine • Incubation time of 2 days • Symptoms only generally last for 3 days • Most calicivirus infections do not call for medical attention • After infection, immunity is usually incomplete and temporary • Affects people of all ages • Causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world, commonly called the “stomach flu” • May be responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US • Hand washing is an effective method to reduce the spread of pathogens, but alcohol rubs are not very effective
As there is no known cure for calicivirus, control is essential.
Carcasses should be buried While animals exposed to the virus should be quarantined or euthanized.
Sanitizing objects that have come in contact with sick animals can be done more effectively by using bleach.
Bergin, I.L., A.G. Wise, S.R. Bolin, T.P. Mullaney, M. Kiupel, and R.K. Maes. 2009. Novel calicivirus identified in rabbits, michigan, usa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15.12:1955-1962.
Jahnke, M., E.C. Holmes, P.J. Kerr, J.D. Wright, and T. Strive. 2010. Evolution and phylogeography of the nonpathogenic calicivirus rcv-a1 in wild rabbits in Australia. Journal of Virology, 84.23: 12397-12404.
Jas, D., C. Aeberle, V. Lacombe, A.L. Guiot, and H. Poulet. 2009. Onset of immunity in kittens after vaccination with a non-adjuvanted vaccine against feline panleucopenia, feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus. Veterinary Journal, 182.1:86-93.
Mencke, N., M. Vobis, H. Mehlhorn, J. D'Haese, M. Rehagen, S. Mangold-Gehring, & U. Truyen. 2009. Transmission of feline calicivirus via the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). Parasitology Research, 105.1:185-189.
Prato, C.M., T.G. Akers, and A.W. Smith. 1977. Calicivirus antibodies in wild fox populations. Journal of wildlife disease. 13.448-450.
Skilling, D.E., J.E. Barlough, E.S. Berry, R.F. Brown, and A.W. Smith. 1987. First isolation of a calicivirus from the stellar sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23.4:534-538. Williams, E.S., T. Yuill, M. Artois, J. Fischer, and S.A. Haigh. 2002. Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties, 21.1:139-157.