Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2008

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Transcript Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2008

MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration

Chapter 5 Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2008

Objectives

• Discuss the basics of the Domain Name System (DNS) and its terminology • Configure DNS clients • Install a standard DNS server on Windows Server 2008 • Create standard DNS zones MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 2

Domain Name System

• Primary function is to translate human-readable host names • Assists the flow of e-mail – Provides mail exchanger records that tell a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server where to send an e-mail message • Supported on the Internet by thousands of distributed servers, or DNS servers MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 3

Domain Name System (continued)

• Activity 5-1: Resetting Network Adapters and Disabling DHCP • Time Required: 20 minutes • Objective: Reset the network adapters on lab servers MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 4

DNS Terminology

• DNS namespace • DNS domain • Fully qualified domain name • Hosts • Host name • DNS record • DNS zone MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 5

DNS Terminology (continued)

• DNS namespace – Organized into the following domains:

root domain (.), top-level domain (TLD), second-level domain, and subdomain

• DNS domain – The portion of the namespace to the right of the host name • Fully qualified domain names – The entire name for a specific host that needs to have a DNS record created MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 6

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DNS Terminology (continued)

• Activity 5-2: Using Whois • Time Required: 5 minutes • Objective: Research domain names MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 9

DNS Terminology (continued)

• Hosts – A computer on the Internet that provides a specific resource • Host name – Name given to a computer, or host, to make connecting to it easier • DNS zone – Collection of connected nodes served by an authoritative DNS name server • DNS records – DNS uses records to provide the information it stores in its database MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 10

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DNS Terminology (continued)

• Activity 5-4: Resolving DNS Records with NSLookup • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Query a DNS server with nslookup MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 12

DNS Queries in Windows Server 2008

• Iterative query – A DNS client requests the best answer that its DNS server can provide • Recursive queries – Queries where the client requires an answer from its DNS server MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 13

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Configuring DNS Clients

• DNS clients – Often referred to as DNS resolvers • Windows Server 2008 – Uses the DNS Client service to perform DNS queries on behalf of the client MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 15

DNS Client Settings

• DNS servers – For a client to resolve DNS queries, it needs to know which server to contact – First DNS server in the list is called the

preferred DNS server

• DNS suffix – DNS domain appended to all unqualified name queries, or a query that contains only a host name MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 16

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DNS Client Settings (continued)

• Activity 5-5: Adding an Alternate DNS server • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Add an alternate DNS server MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 19

DNS Client Settings (continued)

• Activity 5-6: Adding a Domain Suffix to IP Properties • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Configure a client with an additional DNS suffix MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 20

DNS Client Settings (continued)

• Activity 5-7: Creating a Full Computer Name • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Change the computer name MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 21

Dynamic Updates

• Windows Server 2008 – Supports dynamic updates with both standard and Active Directory Domain Services –integrated domains • Dynamic updates – Sometimes referred to as DDNS MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 22

Installing DNS in Windows Server 2008

• DNS – A role that can be installed on Windows Server 2008 Full and Server Core versions – Often combined with other services such as DHCP MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 23

Installing Cache-Only DNS Servers

• Cache-only DNS server – Server that has the DNS role installed – Does not hold a DNS zone so it is not authoritative for any DNS zones – Does it maintain any DNS records MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 24

Installing Cache-only DNS Servers (continued)

• Activity 5-8: Installing DNS on MSN-SRV-0XX • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Install the DNS Server role MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 25

Installing Cache-only DNS Servers (continued)

• Root hints – Provide IP address pointers to top-level DNS servers – When configured, a DNS server can perform queries when it receives domain name requests for zones in which it is not authoritative – Provide referral answers to queries in a DNS server’s quest to resolve an unknown domain name request • Forwarders – Servers used to resolve names MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 26

DNS Zones

• Zones – Building blocks for creating your DNS infrastructure • DNS zones – Classified in three ways • The information they store • Where they are stored • Their read/write status – Fall into two categories • Standard and Active Directory MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 27

Standard Zones

• zone.dns – Used to store DNS records – Found in the %systemroot%\system32\DNS folder • Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) – Industry standard of DNS servers on the Internet and networks running DNS on UNIX/Linux systems MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 28

Standard DNS Zone Types

• Primary DNS zone – The zone that is authoritative for a specific domain and its name records • Secondary DNS zone – Read-only version of the DNS records for a zone • Stub zone – Read-only copy of a zone that obtains its resource records from the name servers that are authoritative for a particular zone MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 29

Standard DNS Zone Types (continued)

• Activity 5-9: Installing a Primary DNS Zone for bentech.local

• Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Create a primary DNS zone MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 30

Standard DNS Zone Types (continued)

• Activity 5-10: Installing a Secondary DNS Zone on MSN-SC-0XX • Time Required: 15 minutes • Objective: Install DNS on Server Core MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 31

Direction of DNS Zones

• Forward lookup DNS zones – Allow a DNS client to resolve an FQDN to an IP address • Reverse lookup DNS zone – Maps IP addresses to host names MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 32

Direction of DNS Zones (continued)

• Activity 5-11: Creating a Reverse Lookup Zone • Time Required: 15 minutes • Objective: Create a reverse lookup zone MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 33

DNS Resource Records

• Information in a DNS record –

Owner, Time-to-Live (TTL)

– Class, Type – Resource Record

Data (RDATA)

• Start of Authority (SOA) – Record is the starting point for information related to a zone • Name server (NS) record – Identifies a DNS server that is authoritative for a zone MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 34

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DNS Resource Records (continued)

• Host (A) record – Provides host name–to–IP address resolution for DNS clients • Host (AAAA) Records for IPv6 – Records map a host name to an IPv6 address • Mail exchanger (MX) record – Specifies the server that is responsible for handling e-mail • Alias records – Used to create an alias for a specific host MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 36

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DNS Resource Records (continued)

• Pointer records – Resolves IP address to host names for DNS clients • Service locator records – Provides the following information • Location of services it needs • Network protocol needed to access the previously mentioned services • Domain services it provides MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 39

DNS Resource Records (continued)

• Activity 5-12: Creating DNS Records in the DNS Console • Time Required: 10 minutes • Objective: Create DNS records MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 40

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Standard DNS Zone Transfers

• Master server – Provides updated DNS record information to secondary servers • Slave server – Gets its updates from the master zone transfer partner specified on the Zone Transfer tab in DNS • Zone transfers from the master to the secondary server come in two varieties – Incremental zone transfers (IXFRs) – Full zone transfers (AXFRs) MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 42

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Summary

• DNS – Responsible for providing name resolution for clients on public and private networks • Core functionality of DNS – To provide host name–to–IP address resolution, or forward lookups • Standard zones classifications – Primary, secondary, and stub zones • DNS – Uses many types of records to store information in its zones MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 44

Summary (continued)

• Installing the DNS role can be done through the GUI using Server Manager • DNS console – The main GUI tool responsible for managing DNS – Allows you to add, delete, and modify all aspects of DNS MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration 45