Aim: How has geography affected human development?

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Transcript Aim: How has geography affected human development?

Aim: How has geography affected human development?
Vocabulary: The bolded words in this slide show.
Where are we?
Room 411
How good are your geography
Label: The 7 continents
The 4 Oceans
Identify the following regions: South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia (The
Middle East), Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Latin
America, Oceania
• Geographic Determinism-Geography was
the primary force behind a society’s
Just to clear things up…
• Geography IS really
important and it DOES
impact people and their
• But did the Inca starve to
death because they didn’t
have flat land to farm on?
• So you see, geographic
conditions don’t always
The Human Impact on the
Resource consumption and
Resource extraction
Producing pollution
Forest clearing
How do these
That humans
shaped their
Oceans, Seas, and Rivers
• Before the world was industrialized, water
transport was an easier, cheaper, and better method
of travel than overland.
• Rivers provided food (fish) and water to drink.
• Rivers were crucial in the development of
agriculture and the establishment of cities.
• Rivers allowed for the movement of people and
goods (resulting in cultural diffusion), and
connected communities to each other.
Arctic Ocean
• Extremely
difficult to
navigate because
it is packed in ice
most of the year.
• Early European
explorers sought
the Northwest
Passage but it is
barely usable.
Indian Ocean
• The Harappans sailed through one of its seas, the
Arabian Sea, to trade with Sumer.
• Malay sailors, Chinese, Muslim, and European
traders used the ocean’s monsoon winds to guide
• Africans also traded via this ocean.
• Commercial rivalries between the Dutch,
Portuguese, and Muslim sailors in the 17th century.
Atlantic Ocean
• Columbus’ voyages caused a lot of
exchange between the Eastern and Western
• Encounters between Europeans, Americans,
and Africans.
• The Mediterranean, joined to the Atlantic,
was important to Middle Eastern and
Greco-Roman civilizations.
Pacific Ocean
• World’s largest ocean.
• Ancient Polynesians
came to Oceania.
• Societies of East and
Southeast Asia used the
Sea of Japan and the
South China and East
China Seas.
• World Wars used the
Pacific islands for
strategic purposes.
Painting Tahitian Women on the Beach by
Paul Gauguin-Musee d’Orsay
Major Geographic Features of the
Middle East
• The Middle East is at the
“crossroads of three
continents: Europe,
Africa, and Asia. This
region is about twice the
size of the United States.
• There are two strategic
waterways in the Middle
East: The Suez Canal
(connecting Europe to
South Asia) and the
Dardanelles and Bosporus
Straits connecting the
Black Sea with the
Mediterranean Sea.
List the characteristics of a
Effects of Deserts
• Deserts- Source of
religious revelations
• Because cultural
diffusion has been
compromised by the
Sahara, the cultures of
those in the Middle
East are quite different
from those who live in
sub-Saharan Africa.
• Deserts• Because much of the
Middle East is desert,
many areas are
sparsely populated.
Effects of Rivers
Rivers- The mild climate and
fertile soil found in river
valleys made them early
centers of civilization.
Three major rivers include
the world’s longest river,
the Nile, and the Tigris
and Euphrates Rivers. The
area between the Tigris
and Euphrates Rivers is
known as the Fertile
The Jordan River, important
To both Jews and Christians
Because of Biblical ties has
Been a source of dispute
Between Jordan and Israel
(which conquered land in
The Fertile Crescent
• The lack of natural barriers in
the Fertile Crescent enabled
migrations and invasions.
• The diversity of the people in
the Fertile Crescent made it
difficult to unite them into a
single nation.
• The Fertile Crescent has also
become known as the “cradle
of civilization.”
• Mesopotamia was in the
eastern end of the Fertile
Crescent (modern day Iraq).
Effects of Seas
• Mediterranean Sea was traveled by Roman
legions and Phoenician traders en route to
• The Dead Sea is a source of chemicals for
Israel such as phosphates
Would you want to live in a region
that is arid?
Geographic Features and their
Climate• Because the Middle East
is located near the
equator, the region has
warm winters and hot
• Nomadic groups such as
Arabs, Bedouins, and the
early Israelites had to
share and developed
close family ties.
Climate• The lack of rainfall in
the Middle East results
in water shortages. It is
also difficult to grow
• The arid climate forced
frugality and conformity
among these groups.
Is oil worth fighting over?
Geographic Features and their
Resources• The Middle East holds
nearly three quarters of
the world’s oil. About
half of the world’s oil is
produced there. Much of
the oil is located in the
Persian Gulf.
Resources• The Middle East has a
scarcity of water due to
very limited rainfalls.
• The Persian Gulf has
been at the center of
wars such as the IranIraq Wars in the 1980s
and the Persian Gulf
War in 1991.
Major Geographic Features
Of Africa
Google Images
Geography Quizzes - Fun Map
• The Sahara Desert is the
world’s largest desert.
• The Sahara separated the
people who lived north
and south of it.
• People south of the Sahara
became fairly isolated
from Europe and Asia
while people north of it
have been part of the
Mediterranean world.
The Sahara Desert
can get as hot as
130 degrees
Sahara Desert
Erfoud, Morocco (Late afternoon-sand dunes)
Rand McNally Intermediate Geography and Map Activities
Tropical Rain Forests
• High temperatures and
heavy rains
• Barrier to communication
and transportation
• Deserts and Rain Forests
have made Africa not as
densely populated as other
• Hindered Africa’s
economic development
• The Nile River is the
longest River spanning
about 4,000 miles. Until
2004 no one had navigated
its entire length!
• Many African rivers are
too dangerous to travel
because of rapids and
Rand McNally Geography
The Nile River
Danger Ahead!
Victoria Falls
Some of Africa’s rivers are
very dangerous to travel
because of the rapids and
falls (Victoria Falls
located on the Zambezi
River, the Mutarazi Falls
in Zimbabwe, and the
Tugela Falls and
Mpumalanga Falls- both
in South Africa)
Hymn to the Nile
• "Hail to you Hapy, Sprung from earth,
Come to nourish Egypt…Food provider,
bounty maker, Who creates all that is
good!…Conqueror of the Two Lands, He
fills the stores, Makes bulge the barns,
Gives bounty to the poor." (from the Middle
Kingdom [2040-1640 BCE] hymn as
translated by Lichtheim)
Importance of the Nile
• People in Egypt settled along the Nile River
• Provided water for drinking and irrigation
• Annual floods left rich deposits of silt that
kept agricultural land fertile
• Highway for travel
• People prayed in pre dynastic times to
Osiris (later known as Hapi) for sustenance
• Africa has a long
coastline that spans
thousands of miles.
• The continent,
however, lacks natural
harbors where ships
can enter and leave a
• This has made trade
with others difficult.
The distribution of fertile and infertile
savannas in Africa. Dark-shaded areas are
broad-leaf, nutrient-poor, savannas; striped
• A large part of subSaharan Africa is
• Most African
communities and most
wildlife are situated
areas are fine-leaf, nutrient-rich savannas.
A striking African woman uses cream made
from ground bark to provide moisturizing
protection from Mozambique Island's
equatorial sun.
• Much of sub-Saharan
Africa is near the
equator and has hot
summers and warm
• Deserts receive too
little rain for
agriculture while rain
forests get too much.
What kinds of natural resources can be
found in Africa?
Think about it…
Why do you think natural resources have
been both good and bad for Africa’s
The Major Geographic Features
Of Latin America
Where is Latin America?
• Geographically speaking, Latin America is
South America and the Caribbean (West
• Culturally speaking, Latin America includes
Mexico well.
• Geographically, however, Mexico is part of
North America.
Google Images
Describe the geographic effects
of mountains.
Andes Mountains
• The Andes have isolated
South America for much
of its history.
• The Inca used terrace
farming to grow food
along the Andes
• The Andes acted as a
geographic barrier, and
hindered attempts to unify
people in Latin America.
• Much of Latin America is near the equator
but high altitudes and winds keep it from
being too hot.
• More people live in higher altitudes where
the temperatures are comfortable.
• The tropical West Indian climate enables the
production of sugar.
• For this reason African slaves were brought
to Latin America.
Box 1: Physical Geography of Latin America
Mountain Areas
Countries included
1. Andes Mountains
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina.
2. Brazilian Highlands
Mountain areas in the Northeast, Southwest and South.
3. Central American Highlands
Countries of Central America.
4. Sierra Madres and Mexican Highlands
Mountain areas of the Sierra Madres (3), ranges and highland areas of the
Pacific coast.
5. Caribbean Sierras and highlands
Countries of the Caribbean and island territories.
Because of their altitude, mountains regulate local climates and determine climatic conditions
creating special biospheres and ecosystems that impact directly on medium- and low-lying
areas. The geomorphologic and terrestrial structure of these areas renders them unstable. They
also include areas of water catchments, which determine water quality and supply and thus
influence the maintenance of local production capacity and the quality of life of local
inhabitants. The mountain areas have a wide array of ecosystems, in addition to mineral and
forest resources that can be exploited in many ways. Their natural beauty also makes them
attractive to tourism and for recreational activities.
Grassland Plains
• Latin America’s poor soils
and mountains make
farming difficult.
• That is why the grassland
plains of the pampas of
Argentina and the Llanos
of Venezuela are highly
valued. They are the most
agriculturally productive
lands in South America.
• Rain Forests have served as a barrier to
transportation and communication.
• For this reason they cause cultures to develop
• The Amazon rainforest is the largest in the world.
• It is extremely hot, humid, and of course, rainy.
• There are more species of plants and animals in
the Amazon rain forest than any other place in the
Rand McNally Intermediate Geography
And Map Activities
Rainforest Wildlife
Amazon River
Map showing the course of the Amazon,
selected tributaries, and the approximate extent
of its drainage area
• World’s second longest
river (2,300 miles long)
• The Amazon carries a
larger volume of water
than the Nile because of
the water from the
• The Amazon flows from
the Andes Mountains to
the Atlantic Ocean.
• Most cities in Latin
America developed on the
Atlantic coast where they
could trade with Europe.
The Amazon River
Learn more about the Amazon
• Latin America lacks
resources needed for
including coal and
Does oiliron ore.
rich mean
• However, there are
that the
large oil reserves in
is rich?
Venezuela and
Major Geographic Features
Of South Asia
South Asia
• South Asia is a
• India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Nepal,
Bhutan, Sikkim, and
Sri Lanka make up
this region.
• South Asia is about
half the size of the
United States.
Rivers and River Valleys
• The earliest
civilizations in South
Asia developed along
river valleys.
• The most fertile land is
found on the plains
along the Ganges and
Indus rivers.
• Hindus consider the
The Ganges River to be
Early River Valley Civilizations
• The Himalayas, the highest
mountains in the world, separate the
Indian subcontinent from the rest of
• This has allowed people on both
sides of the Himalayas to develop
cultures separately.
Hindu Kush Mountains
• Contains passes that has
allowed for both invasions and
• Has little vegetation.
• In 327 BCE Alexander the
Great crossed the Hindu Kush
mountains into Afghanistan.
• Alexander’s stay at Afghanistan
was brief, but he left a Hellenic
influence that lasted for
• The Khyber
Pass allowed
invaders to
penetrate South
Asia including:
• The Aryans
(1500 BCE)
• Alexander the
Great (326
• The Persians
under Darius
(6th century
• 19th century
British forces
America Strikes Back: A Look at Geography of Afghanistan
Aired October 18, 2001 - 11:53 ET
The Khyber Pass
in modern times
MILES O'BRIEN, CNN ANCHOR: To learn about how to find Osama bin Laden, we are spending a little bit of time learning a little bit about the
geography of this region. So I guess, if you can imagine for just a moment, that Professor Jack Shroder of the University of Nebraska in Omaha
and I are in the space shuttle, and we are flying over the general region.
And, Jack, this is an interesting bit of geography here, and when you look at it in this form, you really get a sense of how this is a crossroads,
Afghanistan that is, with the Himalayas coming in here and planes here meeting. It has really been a crossroads of conflict, hasn't it?
JACK SCHRODER, UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA IN OMAHA: Exactly. Alexander the Great came across Iran, Persia and went off to conquer
India. Ghengis Khan came down from Mongolia, came through Afghanistan. The English came up from the British Rhys (ph) three times to
conquer Afghanistan. The Russians, the Soviet Union, came into Afghanistan. It has been a long history of war, thousands of years of war, and the
Afghans are real used to it.
O'BRIEN: They are used to it, they are also very effective in their own way as warriors, are they not? They are not exactly the best equipped of
armies in the war.
SCHRODER: They are very poorly equipped, but they always open their border and say come on in. Getting out is harder to do.
O'BRIEN: Particularly here in this area, where the Khyber Pass and Kabul would be, that is -- there have been historically a number of routes
there that have occurred at the hands of the Afghans.
SCHRODER: Right, the Khyber Pass is right here, and that's the famous pass. That's got a paved highway through it. The other major pass -- and
I will try to get around here so I can look at it as we normally look at it. The other major area is here, and then border here, down through Pashtun
tribal territory is a completely porous border. There are passes all the way through it. It's easy to get in and out across that border, because it's
South Asia has warm
winters and hot
Monsoons are heavy
winds that bring heavy
rains in the summer.
This monsoon in Mumbai
(Bombay) in India (August 2005)
caused about $690 million
in damage.
Q: Why do you think
that monsoons have
been called “The god
and devil of India?”
The Deccan Plateau
• The Deccan Plateau is in the
center of India.
• Many cities developed here
and along the adjoining
coastal plains.
• The term "Deccan" comes
from the Sanskrit word
dakshina, meaning "the
south". The Deccan Plateau
encompasses the four states
of Andhra Pradesn,
Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil
Nadu. Most of the southern
peninsula is a fertile rice
growing region.
Resources in South Asia
Iron ore
Bauxite (Aluminum ore)
Titanium ore
Major Geographic Features
Of Southeast Asia
Locate the following
These rivers served
as water routes and
connected people
in South, Southeast,
and East Asia.
Strategic Location
• Southeast Asia provides the shortest trade
routes between the Indian and Pacific
• Southeast Asia’s culture has been
historically influenced by Indian and
Chinese merchants.
Can you think of
some examples?
Killoran, Zimmer, Jarrett
The Ring of Fire is located at the border of several tectonic plates.
90% of the world’s earthquakes occur in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
There is a lot of volcanic activity here as well.
The Dutch and the Spanish controlled much of
Southeast Asia during the early 1800s. The
Dutch East Indies was renowned for its rich
soil which allowed the harvesting of crops
such as: coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar,
indigo, and tea. Mines were formed to exploit
the rich deposits of tin and copper. Forests
yielded valuable timber including teak, ebony,
and other hardwoods. The Dutch became
notorious for the use of forced slave labor,
known as the culture system, to gather these
raw materials, while purposely discouraging
westernization, or the spreading of European
culture. The Spanish used similar methods to
reap the rewards from their tobacco and sugar
plantations located in the Philippine Islands.
However in 1898, the Philippines were given
to the United States as part of the settlement
for their loss of the Spanish-American War.
Major Geographic Features of
East Asia
Q: How does this map explain why the Chinese have historically
been ethnocentric?
Look what was found in the Gobi Desert!
Oviraptor was a small, omnivorous,
bird-like dinosaur that lived during the
late Cretaceous period, about 88-70
million years ago.
Oviraptor was first found in the Gobi
desert (in Mongolia) in 1924 and was
described and named by Henry F.
Osborn. Oviraptor (meaning "egg
stealer") was thought to eat mostly
eggs. In 1924, an Oviraptor fossil was
found on top of some eggs (which
contained no fossilized embryos), and
people assumed that it had been eating
the eggs. Recently, however, in
Mongolia, paleontologists found some
eggs containing fossilized embryos that
were identified as embryonic
Oviraptors. These eggs were very
similar to those eggs found in 1924 that
originally implicated the Oviraptor as a
thief. If would seem that the Oviraptor
fossil in 1924 was probably a parent of
the eggs in the nest, and not an egg
stealer but a nurturer.
Most Chinese people live
in the eastern part of the
country where there is rich
farmland for growing rice
and tea. The Yangtze
River is one of the longest
rivers in the world and
flows west to east
throughout the country.
FISHING LIFE: Fishermen of South China’s Guangdong Province
ship the marine products that they have just fished out in a dock
along Beibu Gulf
• China’s coastline measures over
4,000 miles.
• This has allowed many Chinese to
rely on fishing for their livelihoods.
The Key to Understanding Global Studies, Jarrett
China is racing ahead in industry and development.
Q: What kinds of energy sources should industrialized
countries (and countries that wish to industrialize)
take advantage of?
The 1,836MW Xiaolangdi dam is
now generating 5.1 billion kWh of
electricity a year.
• China historically has been
desired by foreigners for both
its resources and many people
to market products to.
• China’s resources include coal,
iron ore, petroleum, natural gas,
mercury, tin, aluminum, lead,
zinc, uranium, and hydropower
potential (world's largest).
• China is also utilizing solar
power especially for residents
of rural areas where farmers
have experienced difficulties
with power.
• China has a variety of climates.
• It is tropical in the southwest.
• In the northeast there are cold winters and
warm summers.
• The southeast gets a lot of rainfall from
• Monsoons have allowed for the cultivation
of rice, a staple crop in China.
Despite China’s One Child Policy their
cities are very crowded. Most people travel
by foot or bicycle rather than by car.
Major Geographic Features of
Western Europe
Image wikipedia
The Western Section
• Great Britain
• Ireland
• France
• Belgium
• The Netherlands
• Luxembourg
These nations have a mild
and rainy climate due to
warm ocean currents (the
North Atlantic Drift or the
Gulf Stream).
• The English Channel
separates the islands of Britain
and Ireland from the mainland
of Western Europe. This
channel has provided Britain
with a natural form of
protection against invasion.
• Britain had a lot of coal which
helped them to become a
world power in the 19th
century, but they used up
much of these resources.
• Britain has oil reserves in the
North Sea.
Image wikipedia
• Some of the most
important ranges
include the:
• Alps
• Pyrenees
• Apennines
Q: How do you think
mountain ranges affected
the development of
Western Europe?
• Includes Belgium, The Netherlands, and
• Much of the land is below sea level.
• They are located in the Northeastern European
• The Low Countries have very good harbors and
• The low elevations prompted people in the
Netherlands to build dikes, canals, and windmills
to make sure that the land would not flood.
• Germany
• Austria
• Switzerland
• Liechtenstein
Mild climate
Cold winters
In Germany the Ruhr and Saar area
have rich deposits of coal and iron ore.
The Rhine river has been an
Important form of transportation
And communication in the past.
The river also provided protection
From western invaders.
Austria is very mountainous.
The Danube River cuts through
The mountains and has been a
Major trade route. Agriculture has thrived there.
The Alps protected Switzerland and has
Enabled them to stay neutral in wars.
The Alps are a source of hydroelectric power.
The Swiss are famous for their dairy industry
And other businesses.
• Europe has broad plains
that produce a lot of
potatoes, rye, barley,
wheat, vegetables, fruit,
and corn.
• The Great European Plain
is the largest plain,
spanning 1,200 miles
eastward from Belgium to
The Key to Understanding Global Studies-Jarrett
• Includes the Scandinavian
countries (Norway,
Sweden, Finland,
Denmark, and Iceland).
• Cold winters and tundra in
the far north.
• Fishing and shipping are
important industries as
well as mining and
• Spain
• Portugal
• Italy
• Greece
Hot, dry summers
Mild, sunny winters
Q: Why do you think many early
people in Southern Europe became
• Spain has a lot of mining
• Agriculture is significant
• Portugal has large fishing fleets
• Northern Italy has fertile soils
and is highly industrialized (Po
River Valley is the most
productive agriculturally)
• Southern Italy has poorer soils
and fewer industries
• Greece’s mountains make
agriculture limited, but it has
many fine harbors and many
Greeks fish for a living
Eastern Europe
• The Carpathians are the longest
mountain range.
• The Ural Mountains are
considered to be the dividing
line between Europe and Asia.
• There are large plains in
Eastern Europe that have served
as major invasion routes.
Northern European Plain
crosses Poland and northern
• The Danube is used for
trade and commerce,
irrigation, fish, and
hydroelectric power.
Natural Resources
• Poland-coal, iron ore
• Czech Republic-coal, iron
• Croatia, Slovenia,
Romania-iron, lead,
copper, zinc, oil
• Siberia is in the northern
part of Asia.
• The far north is tundra
• Further south are forest,
steppe, and farmland
• Siberia was a place for
dissidents and those sent
into exile.
• The Trans-Siberian
Railroad was finished in
the early 20th century.
Mining in the Siberian Tundra
What kinds of resources
Do you think are here?
Image Encarta
Image wikipedia
• Oceania includes
Australia, New
Zealand, Papua New
• In addition, there are
three main groups of
• Micronesia,
Melanesia, and
The Outback
• Australia is mostly
desert-like. This dry
land is known as the
• Even though it is
difficult to live in the
Outback some people
do. Sheep and cattle
farms can be found
The Uluru (or Ayers Rock) is one
Of Australia’s most famous
landmarks. It is considered the
world’s largest stone and in the
distance appears to glow bright
The Great Dividing Range
This system of mountain ranges and plateaus in Australia
extends for more than 2,175 miles. It has varying
topography and different sections. The Australian Alps
drawers skiers in the winter.
Image wikipedia
Major Geographic Features of
North America
Caribbean islands
The United States
Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama)
• Greenland (which belongs to Denmark and is also
the largest island in the world).
Much of Canada is unpopulated
because of its cold temperatures
rugged land.
Most Canadians live near the
United States border.
Canada has ten provinces and three
territories (Northwest Territories,
Yukon Territory, Nunavut).
Canada’s Constitution states which
provinces are a part of Canada.
Territories were created by federal
law. Territories have a little less
power than provinces. They can’t,
for example, vote on changes to the
• Major rivers include the
Mississippi River, Missouri
River the St. Lawrence
River, and the Rio Grande
• The Mississippi River is the
longest river in North
America. It is about 2, 350
miles long.
• European explorers used the
St. Lawrence River to
explore the interior of North
• After the Lewis and Clark
expedition fur trappers used
the Missouri River to
transport their goods to St.
Louis by steamboat.
Imagse Wikipedia
The Rocky Mountains are about 2,000
miles long.
The mountains form the Continental
Divide, separating rivers draining to the
Atlantic and Arctic oceans from those
draining to the Pacific.
In Colorado, along the highest point of
the Continental Divide, there are rock
walls built for driving back game that
date back to about 5,800 years ago.
Explorers of the Rocky Mountains have
included Vasquez de Coronado (1540)
and Meriwether Lewis and William
Clark (1804-1806).