Module 7: Social work tools with individuals and small groups

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Transcript Module 7: Social work tools with individuals and small groups

Training Kit : Personalised Social Support 2012
Module 7:
Social work tools
with individuals and groups
Shirin Kiani and Annie Lafrenière
(Technical Resources Division)
Handicap International
Individual and small group level
1. Creating a Sociogram
2. Advocacy: focus on self-advocacy
3. Social work with groups
A diagram representing a
person’s or group’s social
Pattern of relationship in a family
Content of sociogram
• Circles with names inside: big or small,
representing the different members of a family
based on the importance they have in family.
• Lines between the circles: solid or dashed
lines representing the strong or wear links
between family members, can be of different
color if link is negative.
• Arrows pointing one or both ways: showing
whether relationship is reciprocal or only oneway where one person is providing and other
person is not allowed/able to give back.
What a sociogram looks like
When creating a sociogram, think…
• What are the connections
between the people in this family?
• Who is the leader?
• Who is isolated from the family?
• What are the alliances?
• Who do they not get along with
• Is the family united or divided?
Once again…
• Mom is the
leader and
connected with
• Dad isolated
and only
connected with
• There is difficulty
between dad and
grandma which
may affect the
It’s your turn…
Create a sociogram of your family
Evaluate your sociogram…
What circles did you draw first?
How do the sizes of the circles compare to
each other? Who is larger, and who is
smaller? Why do you think you drew them
that way?
How are the circles placed in relation to
each other (close, far away, on top, below,
or next to each other)?
Did you erase or change anything, why?
Follow-up exercise at home
• Ask one member of your family to draw
their own versions of the sociogram
without seeing yours first.
• Do other people’s versions resemble
with your version? Why? Why not?
• What have you learned?
With a focus on self-advocacy
Add+voice = advocacy
• Can happen at individual, local, national,
international levels
• Goal is to create new policy, change bad
policies or implement policies.
• Not just single action, series of actions (e.g.
letters, meetings, street advocacy/strike,
press release/media, join committee).
What is self-advocacy?
Knowing what you need
and being able to ask for it.
• Speak up, voice your opinion
• Take responsibility for your equality in society
More on Self-Advocacy:
• Based on the concept of fairness not want.
• Communicating about the importance of an
issue or law to people who are in a position
to change it
• Although self-advocacy is a personal quest,
the practice of self-advocacy may result in
becoming an advocate for others.
Self-advocacy and empowerment:
go hand in hand
• People who effectively self-advocate are also
more likely to be
earn more,
have their
own savings,
and live on
their own.
How can a social facilitator
encourage self-advocacy in
What is your role?
Help people think about these questions:
• Do you understand how your
impairment impacts you?
• What has been your experiences with
society’s perception towards your
disability ?
• Can you explain the impact to people
around you?
• Do you know what things help you do
a good job or to participate?
• Can you ask for these things from
other people? Coworker? Family?
Someone in the community?
Advocating for what you need:
• Asking a public school to have an accessible doorway
• Asking the post office to put larger signs
• Asking for equal treatment in a health centre
• Asking your family to include you when attending social
Barriers to self-advocacy
Feeling quiet and too shy to speak
Wanting to be nice to everybody
Feeling frustrated and ready to explode
Having too many thoughts and feelings, not
knowing where to start
Not wanting to draw attention to your needs and
be seen as problematic
Thinking no one will understand or care
A successful self-advocate is…
• Aware of his/her strengths and limitations
• Has a sense of purpose/sense of fairness or
• Can seek out information, resources or
• Is organized and can problem solve
• Can argue one’s case clearly with controlled
• Knows who is opposed and what people in
power think
• Has a clear message and wants a clear
Social work with
small groups
Why work with small groups?
What kinds of groups
How to work with groups
Why work with groups?
What is your role
Individuals vs. groups
• Human beings are strongly dependent on interactions
with other humans.
• This often leads to group formation (in/formal)
 good for individual and social development
Social work practice with groups builds on the
important impact of groups on individuals
and utilizes group processes to
accomplish individual and group goals.
Benefits of social group work
• For individuals:
– Development of effective communication skills and coping
– Development of problem-solving techniques
• For the group:
– People in a group are mutually
helpful to each other;
empowerment through helping
– Many individuals may have
similar needs/goals
– Links between good group
functioning and social
Some types of groups…
Educational groups
Socialization groups
Support / Self-help groups
Therapeutic groups (*)
Social facilitator role, with groups
• Facilitate the group (depending on the type of
group chosen)
– Help link the group with community resources
– Helping promote fairness and good group functioning
– Help group manage conflict and continue to move
– Provide group tools and methods to achieve goals.
– Etc.
Groups characteristics
Mixed or similar members
People with and without disabilities
Short term or long term
Focus on therapy or task
Small or large size
Open or closed
Structured or unstructured
Purposes: Information sharing, selfexpression/sharing, achieve goals/activities,
socializing, advocacy (upon type of group chosen)
Examples of groups:
DPOs (disabled persons groups)
Play groups for children
Savings/micro-finance group
Support group for parents of children
with disabilities
• Information groups to arrange basic
training/information for members.
Group (long-term and formal)
success will depend on:
• Structure/Rules: A FEW, clear and well
developed RULES will help the group
function better.
• Leadership: that respects others and helps
the group achieve its goals, also revolving
leadership or shared leadership.
• Purposefulness: a clear idea of why the
group exists and what it want to achieve.
How to work with groups
What is your role?
The natural cycle of groups…
Role in forming
• Clarifying the roles (social facilitator’s role mostly
supportive, facilitating, leader less often – when
• Observing group dynamics
• Remain neutral
• Support group members in defining / understanding
the purpose of the group (depending on type of group
chosen), setting realistic expectations, etc.
Role in storming
• Mediate neutrally by showing the different sides
of the argument to the group and helping
them see the dis/advantages
• Ensure good communication
• Promote the language ‘we’ more than ‘I’.
• Help work on solving the issues not attacking individuals.
• Support the leader (or lead – depending on group chosen) to
know how to manage conflict.
• Remind the group that stronger relationships will come out of
this difficult stage.
• Identify strengths/weaknesses of members.
Role in Norming
Monitor and offer guidance needed.
Help support new leadership (if changes)
Encourage constructive criticism
Encourage group independence (depending
on type of group chosen)
Role in performing
• Monitor group as needed and be available for
support or information/linkages.
• Make sure a clear plan of the future is
present and that the group has a general idea
of how to reach their future destination
together. (for groups meant to last in time)
Link to practice
* Give participants 10 minutes to answer this question individually on a piece of
paper, and then do a roundtable with each person sharing some of their
• Based on what you learned today, what ….is the
social work tool that you think will be most useful to
• What has been your past barriers to working with a