PsyChapter 9

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Transcript PsyChapter 9

Chapter 9
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence—the abilities to acquire new abilities and new behavior and
adapt to new situations.
4 Different Theories:
Spearman’s Two-factor
Thurstone’s Theory of Primary Mental Abilities
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Spearman’s Two-factor Theory
G-factor—represents a person’s general intelligence
(the ability to reason and solve problems)
S-factor—represents a person’s specific mental
abilities (for example, some may be better at music
or be more creative)
Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence
Believed that intelligence was made up of 8 separate
Visual and spatial ability
Perceptual speed
Numerical ability
Verbal meaning
Word fluency
Inductive and deductive reasoning
Belief that one can be high in one factor and low in
another, but they are still dependent on each other.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Believed in 7 kinds of intelligences:
Interpersonal feelings
Intrapersonal feelings
Each one is based in a different part of the brain
Main difference between Gardner and Thurstone—Gardner believed intelligences
were independent of one another!!
Gardner (continued)
A person can excel at one intelligence but
not another.
Each intelligence is an intellectual potential
that can be tapped into.
Critics believe that special talents (such as
music) are not considered to be
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Believed different types of intelligences work together
Intelligence includes three abilities:
Analytic (solve problems)
Creative (deal with new situations)
Practical (accomplish everyday tasks)
Emotional Intelligence
There are five factors that can make one
Mood management
Impulse control
People skills
Links Between Different Types
Do parts of the brain overlap?
Some psychologists have done studies to show that music overlaps
with other cognitive abilities.
Measurement of Intelligence
Section 2
Types of Tests
Achievement—what you have learned
Aptitude—predicts your ability to learn new
Intelligence tests (most-widely used)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Wechsler Scales
Stanford-Binet Scales
First test was used in 1905
Intelligence increases with age so tests were made for different age levels
Look at page 211 for diagram
Tests gave a mental age score. It shows the intellectual level at which a child is functioning.
Intelligence quotient—number that reflects the relationship between a child’s mental age
and his or her chronological age.
IQ= Mental Age/Chorological Age X 100
Thus, 100 is considered to be average.
The Wechsler Scales
More widely used than Stanford-Binet!
Consists of subsets of intellectual skills.
Differ from Stanford-Binet in 2 ways:
--do not use the concept of mental age
--measures verbal and non-verbal (SB
measures just verbal)
Test is used to determine learning
Look at figure 9.3 on page 213
Reliability & Validity
Reliability—refers to its consistency
Validity—measures what it is supposed to measure
If a test is reliable, one should get about the same IQ score every
Both Stanford-Binet and Wechsler have proved to be highly reliable.
If a test is valid, it should predict how one does in school or at a
Problems with Intelligence Tests
Education and Economic Background
can affect results
--Scores are approximately 10-15% lower
in lower-income children
Culturally Biased Tests
--concepts only used by certain cultures
--interpreted by different cultures
different ways
Differences in Intelligences
Section 3
Approximately 50% of the population’s IQ falls between 90-110
(average being 100)
Approximately 95% of the population have an IQ between 70 and
The other 5% are defined by psychologists as mentally handicapped
or gifted.
Mental Retardation
Having an IQ score below 70 defines an individual as being mentally retarded.
Mild Retardation
--80% of people who are mentally-handicapped
and 70.
--Able to read, do arithmetic, and hold a job
--people with an IQ between 35 and 49
--can speak, feed, and dress themselves
--cannot read or solve problems
--Down’s syndrome
have an IQ between 50
Mental Retardation (continued)
Severe Retardation
--IQ between 20 and 35
--some understanding of speech
--may be able to feed themselves
Profound Retardation
--IQ below 20
--barely communicate
--depend on others completely
Causes of Mental Retardation
--Accidents resulting in brain damage
--Difficulties during Childbirth
--Pregnant women abusing drugs or alcohol
--Pregnant women who are malnourished
--Genetic disorders such as Down’s
--People with an IQ higher than 130
--motivation and creativity could
--Children who are gifted should be
to receive additional enrichment to foster their
identified early as
What Influences Intelligence?
Section 4
Where does Intelligence come from?
Most psychologists agree intelligence is both
heredity and from environmental factors
Genetic Influences
--Kinship Studies (heritability is between
--Adoptee Studies
Environmental Influences
--Parenting Styles
--Preschool Programs (Head Start)