Law Enforcement Organization and Administration

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Transcript Law Enforcement Organization and Administration

Law Enforcement Organization and Administration

Chapter 1

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Modern Day Law Enforcement can be traced to the Metropolitan Police in London, England, created in 1829.

Industrial Revolution

• • • Industrial Revolution in England caused a great surge of an uneducated and poorly trained population to migrate to London.

This surge led to an increase in crime, chaos and poverty.

These problems led to a proliferation of private and special police forces that served the needs of the diverse interest groups needing protection.

• British Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel lobbied British Parliament to from a professional organized police force under government control.

Metropolitan Police Act

• • Outlined the first duty manual to prevent crime and protect order.

Established a police constabulary modeled into a para-military organization with a military style rank structure.

• • Metropolitan Police model was a success and gradually extended to all parts of England and was exported to America.

Key component was local control

Traditional Management 1750 - 1900 • • Concept of local control – Each county or city having control of the local police or sheriffs department Department had Centralized Administration – Control from top – Limited decision making at the operational level

Pendleton Act – Attempt to limit political influence by the creation of a Civil Service to hire and promote personnel – Placed federal employees under a merit system in an attempt to reduce political interference

Scientific Management Model 1900 - Present • Scientific Management – emphasis on efficiency, orderliness, and output.

– Division of labor – Unity of Command and centralization of decision making – One-way authority – Narrow span of control

REFORMERS

O. W. Wilson

• Police Management Principals – Professional police department divorced from politics – Rigorous police personnel selection and training process – Use of latest technology innovations available for law enforcement

O. W. Wilson

• • Opposed civil service because it hampered police chiefs from selecting most qualified personnel in selection and promotion Organized police around – Planning – Activating – Controlling

William H. Parker

• LAPD Chief 1950 -1966 – Implemented Scientific Management in the LAPD – Instituted probationary periods for new officers – Developed a method of operation manual – Implemented a research and development division – LAPD became model for hiring standards, recruitment, training, and technology

HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL

1925 TO PRESENT

• Participative Management – The Police Executive is a team leader – Manager is first among equals – People oriented humanistic approach • Manager defines limits in which decisions can be made • Manager and the group jointly make decisions with limits defined by organizational constraints

Behavioral Management

1945 to Present

Systems Management

1960 to Present

Management By Objectives

• • • • • Goal Orientated Philosophy and Attitude Focus on results, less concerned for method Program evaluation and review techniques – Manner of determining goal achievement Planned programmed budgets – Better identification of expenditures – Tighter control of unit activities Organizational development – Process of building a sound organizational structure

Community Policing

• Incorporates problem-solving policing, which attempts to solve specific crime problems in the community

Proactive Police Management

1980 to Present

Proactive Police Management

• • • • • Focus Of The Text Objective of policing is crime prevention Strong commitment to community involvement Modern Bureaucracy Full Service Police Department with multi specialist teams Full use of modern communication

• • • • • Modern budgeting and accounting systems Crisis Management Planning Consultative Management Data Driven Department with full use of technology Emphasis on Operational Utility

INNOVATORS

WILLIAM BRATTON

• Instituted crime control planning program known as COMPSTAT (computer statistics) while he was New York City Police Commissioner

Lee P. Brown

• • Instituted Neighborhood Oriented Police model in Houston, Texas.

Oriented police officer from enforcer of neighborhood beats to problem solver.