Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry: a power point

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Transcript Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry: a power point

Sustainable Practices
in
Iron and Steel Industry
Environment Management Division
STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED
ECAC, WBPCB, Kolkata
23.11.2012
What is Sustainability ?
Sustainability means living within the resources of
the planet without damaging the environment now or
in the future.
2
What is Sustainable Development?
Integration of
industrial
development and
protection of
environment is the
essence of
Sustainable
Development
3
Ancient Philosophy –
Respect for Environment
In ‘Rig Veda’, it is stated:
Sky is like a father
Earth is like a mother
Space is as their children
It reflects that environment is to be valued like parents and
loved like children
4
Steel - a vital resource for Sustainable
Development
• Steel as a finished product, is one of the most
environment friendly products, owing to its excellent
mechanical properties, versatility and its recyclability.
• The rapid and continuing growth
of steel industry during last few
decades bears testimony to the
indispensability of steel, as a
vital resource for sustainable
development.
5
Environmental Aspects of Iron & Steel
Industries
• However, the process of steel
making itself is highly energy and
fossil
fuel
intensive
and
consequently a major GHG
emitting process and therefore,
the cause of environmental
concern across the world.
• Locally steel making industry is normally perceived to be
large, dirty and polluting by civil society and
environmentalists.
6
Growth of Indian Iron & Steel Industry
•
In commensuration with the growth of Indian economy,
steel industry in India has also grown accordingly.
•
Presently, crude steel production is ~72 MT, expected to
reach ~150 MT per year by 2016 – 17.
•
Such perceived growth in steel production capacity can be
achieved mainly through rise in steel consumption,
particularly in rural sector.
• Enhancement of production capacity requires construction
of new steel plants and expansion of existing plants.
• This would also imply increased extraction of natural
resources and their processing.
7
Challenging Issues for today
• Over the years, the domestic steel industry has improved
its technology and maintenance systems.
• However, globally, Indian Steel Industry is yet to fully
match its competitors in the developed countries in all the
areas pertaining to adoption of sustainable production
technique.
• Unless there is reduction in the consumption pattern of the
input materials as well as specific emission intensities, it
may be difficult to achieve a balance between increased
production and minimum possible damage to the
environment by the industries.
• The increase in capacity needs to address environmental
issues for long term sustainability.
8
Sustainable Practices are the only way out
to meet these challenges and for long term
viability of the iron and steel industry.
9
Initiatives from Government
• Environmental Rules and Regulations, notified from time to
time
- recently harmonized the notification for iron and steel industries
• Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental
Protection (CREP), 2003
- to go beyond the compliance with the environmental standards
• National Environmental Policy (NEP), 2006
- promotes sustainable development
• National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008
identified 8 National Missions,
- to achieve sustainable development
• Sustainable Development / MOU Guidelines issued by
Department of Public Enterprise
- including Sustainable Development as a compulsory element for
Central Public Sector Enterprises
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Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel
Industries
Sustainable practice aims at:
 Resource Conservation
 Energy conservation
 Pollution Control
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Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials
•
Beneficiation to use lean ore and to recover iron ore
fines from slime
• Incorporation of appropriate
beneficiation system to
maximise use of ore reserve
and to recover additional iron
value from slime
• The slime loss has been
drastically reduced to ~10 %
from ~20% with the recovery
of quality fines concentrate.
Being installed at Bolani, Gua, Barsua-Taldih, Chiria and
Dalli Mechanised Iron Ore mines of SAIL
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Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials
•
Pelletisation of iron ore fines
Advantages:
• To transform fines concentrate
generated during the iron ore
beneficiation process into pellets,
suitable to feed Blast Furnace or
Direct Reduction plant or Corex.
• Gainful usage of ultrafines, which
other wise would have gone into
slime.
• Usage of agglomerated ore
improves BF productivity
Pellet Plants of capacity 4.0 MTPA and 1.0 MPTA are under
installation at Gua Ore mines and Dalli Mechanised Mines
respectively.
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Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw materials
•
Adoption of ITmk3 technology for production of steel from
iron ore fines
Advantages:
• Direct use of low grade
material (e.g, fine ore and
boiler quality coal) to
produce nuggets
• Highly energy-efficient,
low environmental load
A plant with 0.5 MPTA nuggets production capacity is being14
installed at Alloy Steels Plant premises at Durgapur
Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials
•
BOF slag being used as flux supplement for base mix
preparation in Sinter Plant
• Use of BOF sludge in base mix for Sinter Plant
• Adoption of 3R’s (Reduce,
Reuse and Recycle) for
waste utilization. As a result,
solid waste utilization at
SAIL plants show consistent
improvement over the years.
15
Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Management of Solid waste
For ensuring proper and complete management of solid
waste, SAIL has taken up following projects on environment
under Research & Development (R&D) Master Plan;
A. Utilisation of Slag
• Dry granulation of BOF slag
B. Utilisation of Sludge
• Almond briquetting of sludge for use in converter
• Micro-palletisation of sludge for use in sinter plant
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Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Water
•
Efficient local recirculation systems
and plugging of
leakages, resulting
in reduction of sp.
water consumption
drastically.
• For further reduction in water consumption, “Zero
Discharge” scheme is
implementation at plants.
under
different
stages
of
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Energy-efficient Technologies have been implemented/are being
implemented under on-going expansion/modernization projects in
different processes of steel making to achieve reduction in specific
energy consumption and specific CO2 emission.
CDQ
Higher
Capacity
COB
TRT
CCCS
BLT
Recovery
of BOF
Gas
Continuous
Casting
Multi-Slit
Burners
Sinter Waste
Heat Recovery
CDI
Hot Stove Waste
Heat Recovery
Sec.
Emissio
n
Control
Walking
Beam
Furnace
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coke Making
• Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ)
• Computerized Combustion Control System (CCCS)
• High Pressure Liquor Aspiration (HPLA) System
• Modern Leak-proof Doors
• Higher Capacity Coke Oven Battery
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ)
Features & Benefits:
• Better coke quality
• Reduces emissions
• Recovers sensible heat of coke
• Generates electricity
• Water conservation
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
• Space constraints
• Difficult for retrofitting
Under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP
& ISP under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL
plants
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Computerised Combustion Control System (CCCS)
Features & Benefits:
• Optimise battery heating
• Fuel and energy efficiency
• Maintain good and uniform
coke temp.
Disadvantages:
• Difficulty in retrofitting in
running batteries
• High initial cost
Installed at Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP and BSL and
under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries under ongoing expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants
21
Efforts towards Energy Conservation
High Pressure Ammonia Liquor Aspiration System
(HPALA)
Features & Benefits:
• Emission control
• gainful recovery of
carbonaceous material
• Energy-efficient
Disadvantages:
• Integration with up and
downstream facilities
• Difficulty in retrofitting in
operating batteries
Progressively introduced during rebuilding of coke oven batteries at
various plants and also being incorporated at new batteries at BSP,
RSP and ISP under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
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Efforts
towards Energy- Conservation
Clean
Technologies
Coke Making
Modern Leak-proof Door
Features & Benefits:
• Minimise emission from
doors
• Regulation-free operation
• Less maintenance-prone
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
Progressively installed at all SAIL plants and also being
installed at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under
modernization cum expansion project of SAIL
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Higher Capacity Coke Oven (7 m tall)
Battery
Features & Benefits:
• Energy efficiency
• Less pollution prone
• Better maintainability
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
• machineries can not be
shared amongst a batch of
old batteries
Installed at BSP and also under installation at BSP, RSP
and ISP with new coke oven batteries under modernisation
cum expansion project of SAIL
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Sinter Making
• Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Coolers
• Multi-slit Burners in Ignition Furnace
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Cooler
Features & Benefits:
CYCLONE
Comb
. Gas
Hot Air
Clean Hot Air
to Furnace
Hot Air
Extraction
Hood
Disadvantages:
Sinter
Furnace
SINTER
MACHINE
• Achieving energy
efficiency through
recovery of waste heat
• Reducing emissions
• Fuel savings
• High initial cost
• Difficulty in retrofitting in
the existing plant
Hot Air
Extraction
Hood
SINTER
COOLERS
Installed with Sinter Plants at BSP and DSP and under installation
with new Sinter Plants at ISP & BSL and Sinter Machines at BSP,
under on-going modernization cum expansion project of SAIL
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Multi-Slit Burners in Ignition Furnace
Features & Benefits:
• Fuel savings
• Less emissions
Barriers:
• High initial cost
Installed at all plants and also being installed at various
plants under under modernisation cum expansion project of
SAIL
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Iron Making
• Coal Dust Injection (CDI)
• Waste Heat Recovery from BF Stoves
• Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)
28
Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coal Dust Injection (CDI)
Features & Benefits:
• Uses thermal coal which in turn
reduces coke rate and hence
reduces energy consumption and
emissions in CO battery
• Reduces dependency on costly
coking coal
• Increases BF refractory lining life
Disadvantages:
• Difficulty in achieving required
burden characteristics and blast
temp.
• Achieving uniform transfer of
pulverized coal
CDI / CTI installed at 16 out of 20 BFs at SAIL plants. Facility is
being installed with new BFs under on-going modernisation
cum expansion project of SAIL
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Blast Furnace Heat Recuperation
Features & Benefits:
• Energy Saving
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under
on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Top Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)
Features & Benefits:
• Generates electric power,
utilizing top gas pressure,
which was getting wasted
otherwise
• Excellent operational
reliability
Disadvantages:
• Suitable for larger furnace
with higher temp. & press.
only
• High initial cost
Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going
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modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Steel Making
• Recovery of BOF gas
• Continuous Casting
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Recovery of BOF Gas
Features & Benefits:
• Energy saving through
utilization of heat value of
by-product gas
• Reduction in emissions
• Reduction in quantity of
flue gas
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
• Increased operational
and maintenance cost
• Retrofitting in existing
system
Installed at all steel plants and being
installed with new
BOFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation
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cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Continuous Casting
Features & Benefits:
• Energy saving
• Emission reduction
• Resource conservation
• Enhanced yield and
quality
Disadvantages:
• high initial cost
• Space and layout
• Retrofitting in existing
system
Installed at BSP, DSP, RSP and BSL, and being installed at
ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program
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Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Rolling
Walking Beam Furnace
Features & Benefits:
• Highly energy efficient
• Uniform heating
• Enhanced quality
Disadvantages:
• High initial cost
• Retrofitting in existing
system
Installed at BSP and being installed at BSL under on-going35
modernization cum expansion program of SAIL
Efforts towards Pollution Control
SAIL has identified a two-pronged approach:
Adoption of Clean Technologies
and
Implementation of Cleaning-up Technologies
36
Efforts towards Pollution Control
Clean Technology refers to the technology that is
economically competitive & productive, uses less
material and/or energy, generates less waste, and
causes less environmental damage than the
alternatives.
Cleaning-up Technology refers to the technology that
reduces environmental damage by retrofitting,
modification and adding end-of pipe pollution abatement
measures to an established plant and process.
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Efforts towards Pollution Control
Coke Making
• Control of stack emission through latest technology like ceramic
welding etc.
• Introduction of screw-feed
charging cars with HPLA system
• Installation of water sealed AP
caps, modern leak-proof doors
• Installation of Dry Fog Dust
Suppression (DFDS) system at
Coal Handling and Coke Handling
Plant to arrest work-zone
emission
• Installation of BOD Plant for
efficient treatment of phenolic COBP effluent
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Efforts towards Pollution Control
Raw Material Handling
•
•
Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) systems at Wagon Tipplers
Dust Extraction (DE) systems at transfer points
Sinter Making
•
•
Efficient de-dusting system for improved work-zone environment
at Material Handling Area
Process emission control
and area de-dusting through
installation of ESP
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Efforts towards Pollution Control
Iron Making
•
•
•
Gas Cleaning Plant with Belt filter
Cast House De-dusting System
Dry Fog Dust
Suppression (DFDS)
for control of work-zone
emission at
Highline/Stock House
40
Efforts towards Pollution Control
Steel Making
•
•
•
Gas Cleaning Plant with
Vacuum Drum filter
Control of secondary
emission through
installation of Dog House
Bag filters for work-zone
emission control at Flux
Handling Area
41
Efforts towards Pollution Control
Rolling
•
Effluent Treatment Plant for treatment of effluent generated during
rolling process
Others
•
•
Sewage Treatment
Plant and utilization of
treated effluent for
industrial use
Concord Blue
Technology for
treatment of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW)
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To sum up
• Adopting sustainable practices for iron & steel making
is the only option to counteract the associated
maladies at this juncture of growing demand.
• Along with the Industry, concerted efforts are needed
from all the major players e.g. the Govt., Policy
makers, Media, Consumers etc.
• Multidisciplinary research work is essential for
exploring newer application and optimising use of
existing technologies for a sustainable and
environmentally sound management.
• SAIL is committed to Sustainable Development
through progressive adoption of energy efficient
technologies, resource conservation and pollution
control.
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Crude Steel Production