Forestry Basics

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Transcript Forestry Basics

Forestry Basics
Carey Entz
Lycoming County Conservation District
Watershed Specialist
What a Tree Needs To Grow
Parts of the Tree
Growth of the Tree
Each year the tree grows two new layers
Springwood: The layer formed in the
spring by the cambium, grows fast and
looks light in color.
Summerwood: The layer formed in the
summer, grows slower and the cells are
smaller so the layer is much darker in color.
What the Rings can Tell You
By counting the dark rings you call tell the age
of the tree.
The annual rings can also tell you what
happened during the trees life.
The size and shapes of the rings indicate:
Soil moisture and fertility, weather, fire,
overcrowding and insect attacks
Forest Succession
Forests are always growing and changing!
Succession: is when some trees replace or
succeed, other trees in the same place.
3 Main Layers within a Forest:
Canopy or Overstory- Large Trees above the forest floor
Understory- Small Trees and bushes under the Canopy
Forest Floor- Shrubs, wildflowers, and shade tolerant plants
This change may come slowly with old age or
suddenly after fire or windstorm; but
succession never stops.
Forest Communities
There are two Principal Forest Types in PA
In the North:
Birch, Beech, Maple, Hemlock Forests
In the South:
Oak, Chestnut and Yellow Poplar Forests
Do You Know What PA State Tree is?
Forest Resources
Forest Resources: Trees
Forest Resources: Trees
Common Wood Products:
Paper, Pencils, Bats, Rackets, and Power poles
Not So Common Uses:
Film, Tires, Aspirin, Toothpaste, and Cattle Feed.
Forest Resources: Trees
There are nearly 700 species of trees in the US
Forests, but only 100 species are used in the
products we use regularly.
40 are Softwoods (Pine, Hemlock, Cedar)
 Used for lumber, plywood and paper
60 are Hardwoods (Cherry, Oak, Maple)
 Used for furniture, flooring, and paneling
Forest Resources: Water
Forest lands are prime sources for of water!
Trees transpire or give water off through their
leaves. Remember the Water Cycle?
The forest cover can control the amount of
water released and quality of water to the near
by waterways.
The forest cover also provides shade to
streams. Cold water is important to fish.
Forest Resources: Wildlife
Forest and woods are homes to many kinds of
animals- Large and Small.
Three basics to habitat: Food, Water, Shelter
Each stage of forest succession favors certain
Through proper management you can create
quality habitat for a large numbers of wildlife
species within the same forest.
Forest Resources: Forage
Edible plants (forage) are forest resources just
as trees are.
Forage includes grasses, and buds, shoots, and
leaves of woody plants, and herbs that can be
eaten by livestock or wildlife.
Forest Resources: Recreation
The state forest system was first established in 1898
for the purpose of providing a continuous supply of
wood products, protecting watersheds, and providing
opportunities for outdoor recreation
Today, the state forest comprises over 2.1 million
acres and accounts for 12 percent of the forested area
in the Commonwealth.
Pennsylvania's state forest represents one of the
largest expanses of public forest land in the eastern
United States, making it a truly priceless public asset.
Forest Management
Silviculture and other
Best Management Practices
What is Silviculture?
 Silvicutlture is the planting, growing,
tending, and harvesting stands of trees.
Silviculture Systems are methods used to
maintain vigor, desired composition, health
and structure in terms of age, species, and
size class.
How to Choose a Silviculture System
When evaluating the site the forester considers
all the physical, chemical, climatic, and
biological features of an area that influence the
forest regeneration and growth.
Other factors are the sensitivity to an area to
soil compaction, erosion, and stream
Intermediate Treatments
Intermediate treatments are done when the
forest is still growing to economic and
biological maturity
The residual stand will be able to resond to the
increased light, water and nutrients to reduce
Examples: Cleanings, Thinning, and
Improvement Cuts
Regeneration Methods
The goal of the regen. methods are to re-establish a
healthy forest.
Single tree or group method: Mimics blow downs.
Utilizes diameter-limited cut or high grade cutting.
Shelterwood and Clear-cut: Mimics wildfire or
Shelterwood: leaves the trees until regeneration is well
Clear-cutting: The best way to for regen. of black cherry,
aspen and poplar because they need full sunlight their
entire life.
Other Best Management
Practices (BMP)
Planting Seedlings
Seeding a Forest
Gathering Seeds
Improving Trees
BMP: Fire
Prescribed Burning is sometime used,
especially in pine forests.
The fire exsposes the soil, releases nutients
into the soil, eliminates some insects and
disease and removes undesirable trees and
Fire can be as important to in manageing
Wildlife as it is in managing timber and
controlling other vegetation.
BMP: Fertilizers
Fertilizers can be added to the soil.
The nutrients are added to the forest soil and
picked up through the plant roots.
These healthy trees grow much faster than
BMP: Planting Seedlings
After harvesting a forester may deside to
plant seedlings.
Natural seeding may take several years,
while planting will speed up the process.
Attention should be given to the species
of seedlings for timber harvest, watershed
protection, recreation and wildlife habitat.
BMP: Gathering Seeds
Pine trees are the easiest to gather seed from.
The pine cones ripen in the fall. The cone
dries and the seeds will fall out.
The seeds need to be kept in a cool, dry place.
They go through a dormate period during the
The seeds are then ready to germinate in the
BMP: Improving Trees
Foresters are now using genetic
improvement to get better trees.
They gather seed from superior trees.
They also may artificially pollinate tree to
develop superior tree families.
Enemies of the Forest
Wildfires and Insects
Enemies of the Forest: Wildfires
Nearly 9 out of 10 wildfires are started by
careless people.
Only 1 of 10 are caused by lightning!
Crown fires can spread over many miles
with the right weather and topography of
the land.
Help Prevent Forest Fires!
Enemies of the Forest: Insect
Emerald Ash Borer
Enemies of the Forest: Insect
Woolly Adelgid
Enemies of the Forest: Insect
Gypsy Moths
Enemies of the Forest: Insect
Asian Longhorn Beetle
2009 Envirothon
Forestry Resources